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Powering electronic implants by high frequency volume conduction: in human validation

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dc.contributor.author Minguillon, Jesus
dc.contributor.author Tudela Pi, Marc
dc.contributor.author Becerra Fajardo, Laura
dc.contributor.author Perera Bel, Enric
dc.contributor.author Ama, Antonio J. del
dc.contributor.author Gil-Agudo, Ángel
dc.contributor.author Megía-García, Álvaro
dc.contributor.author García-Moreno, Aracelys
dc.contributor.author Ivorra Cano, Antoni, 1974-
dc.date.accessioned 2023-03-09T07:25:06Z
dc.date.available 2023-03-09T07:25:06Z
dc.date.issued 2023
dc.identifier.citation Minguillon J, Tudela-Pi M, Becerra-Fajardo L, Perera-Bel E, del-Ama AJ, Gil-Agudo Á, Megía-García Á, García-Moreno A, Ivorra A. Powering electronic implants by high frequency volume conduction: in human validation. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2023;70(2):659-70. DOI: 10.1109/TBME.2022.3200409
dc.identifier.issn 0018-9294
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10230/56121
dc.description.abstract Objective: Wireless power transfer (WPT) is used as an alternative to batteries to accomplish miniaturization in electronic medical implants. However, established WPT methods require bulky parts within the implant or cumbersome external systems, hindering minimally invasive deployments and the development of networks of implants. As an alternative, we propose a WPT approach based on volume conduction of high frequency (HF) current bursts. These currents are applied through external electrodes and are collected by the implants through two electrodes at their opposite ends. This approach avoids bulky components, enabling the development of flexible threadlike implants. Methods: We study in humans if HF (6.78 MHz) current bursts complying with safety standards and applied through two textile electrodes strapped around a limb can provide substantial powers from pairs of implanted electrodes. Results: Time averaged electric powers obtained from needle electrodes (diameter = 0.4 mm, length = 3 mm, separation = 30 mm) inserted into arms and lower legs of five healthy participants were 5.9 ± 0.7 mW and 2.4 ± 0.3 mW respectively. We also characterize the coupling between the external system and the implants using personalized two-port impedance models generated from medical images. Conclusions: The results demonstrate that innocuous and imperceptible HF current bursts that flow through the tissues by volume conduction can be used to wirelessly power threadlike implants. Significance: This is the first time that WPT based on volume conduction is demonstrated in humans. This method overcomes the limitations of existing WPT methods in terms of minimal invasiveness and usability.
dc.description.sponsorship This work has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant 779982 (Project EXTEND—Bidirectional Hyper-Connected Neural System). A. Ivorra gratefully acknowledges the financial support by ICREA under the ICREA Academia programme.
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
dc.relation.ispartof IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering. 2023;70(2):659-70.
dc.rights © 2022 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TBME.2022.3200409
dc.title Powering electronic implants by high frequency volume conduction: in human validation
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TBME.2022.3200409
dc.subject.keyword Galvanic coupling
dc.subject.keyword human validation
dc.subject.keyword implantable biomedical devices
dc.subject.keyword volume conduction
dc.subject.keyword wireless power transfer
dc.relation.projectID info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/H2020/779982
dc.rights.accessRights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.type.version info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion


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