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Menstruation and social inequities in Spain: a cross-sectional online survey-based study

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dc.contributor.author Medina Perucha, Laura
dc.contributor.author López-Jiménez, Tomàs
dc.contributor.author Jacques-Aviñó, Constanza
dc.contributor.author Holst, Anna Sofie
dc.contributor.author Valls Llobet, Carme
dc.contributor.author Munrós-Feliu, Jordina
dc.contributor.author Martínez-Bueno, Cristina
dc.contributor.author Pinzón-Sanabria, Diana
dc.contributor.author Vicente-Hernández, Mª Mercedes
dc.contributor.author Berenguera, Anna
dc.date.accessioned 2023-09-19T06:08:44Z
dc.date.available 2023-09-19T06:08:44Z
dc.date.issued 2023
dc.identifier.citation Medina‑Perucha L, López‑Jiménez T, Jacques‑Aviñó C, Holst AS, Valls‑Llobet C, Munrós‑Feliu J, Martínez‑Bueno C, Pinzón‑Sanabria D, Vicente‑Hernández MM, Berenguera A. Menstruation and social inequities in Spain: a cross-sectional online survey-based study. Int J Equity Health. 2023;22:92. DOI: 10.1186/s12939-023-01904-8
dc.identifier.issn 1475-9276
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10230/57904
dc.description.abstract Background: Available research suggests that menstrual inequity has an impact on (menstrual) health outcomes and emotional wellbeing. It is also a significant barrier to achieve social and gender equity and compromises human rights and social justice. The aim of this study was to describe menstrual inequities and their associations with sociodemographic factors, among women and people who menstruate (PWM) aged 18-55 in Spain. Methods: A cross-sectional survey-based study was conducted in Spain between March and July 2021. Descriptive statistical analyses and multivariate logistic regression models were performed. Results: A total of 22,823 women and PWM were included in the analyses (Mean age = 33.2, SD = 8.7). Over half of the participants had accessed healthcare services for menstruation (61.9%). The odds for accessing menstrual-related services were significantly higher among participants with university education (aOR: 1.48, 95% CI, 1.13-1.95). Also, 57.8% reported having had partial or no menstrual education pre-menarche, with odds being higher among participants born in non-European or Latin American countries (aOR: 0.58, 95% CI, 0.36-0.93). Lifetime self-reported menstrual poverty was between 22.2-39.9%. Main risk factors for menstrual poverty were identifying as non-binary (aOR: 1.67, 95% CI, 1.32-2.11), being born in non-European or Latin American countries (aOR: 2.74, 95% CI, 1.77-4.24), and not having a permit to reside in Spain (aOR: 4.27, 95% CI, 1.94-9.38). Completed university education (aOR: 0.61, 95% CI, 0.44-0.84) and no financial hardship < 12 months (aOR: 0.06, 95% CI, 0.06-0.07) were protective factors for menstrual poverty. Besides, 75.2% reported having overused menstrual products due to lack of access to adequate menstrual management facilities. Menstrual-related discrimination was reported by 44.5% of the participants. Non-binary participants (aOR: 1.88, 95% CI, 1.52-2.33) and those who did not have a permit to reside in Spain (aOR: 2.11, 95% CI, 1.10-4.03) had higher odds of reporting menstrual-related discrimination. Work and education absenteeism were reported by 20.3% and 62.7% of the participants, respectively. Conclusions: Our study suggests that menstrual inequities affect a high number of women and PWM in Spain, especially those more socioeconomically deprived, vulnerabilised migrant populations and non-binary and trans menstruators. Findings from this study can be valuable to inform future research and menstrual inequity policies.
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher BioMed Central
dc.relation.ispartof Int J Equity Health. 2023;22:92
dc.rights © The Author(s) 2023. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.title Menstruation and social inequities in Spain: a cross-sectional online survey-based study
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-023-01904-8
dc.subject.keyword Androcentrism
dc.subject.keyword Menstrual health
dc.subject.keyword Menstrual hygiene management
dc.subject.keyword Menstrual inequity
dc.subject.keyword Menstruation
dc.subject.keyword Period poverty
dc.subject.keyword Social inequities
dc.subject.keyword Women’s health
dc.rights.accessRights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.type.version info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion


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