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The evaluation of the 3-30-300 green space rule and mental health

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dc.contributor.author Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.
dc.contributor.author Dadvand, Payam
dc.contributor.author Márquez, Sandra
dc.contributor.author Bartoll, Xavier
dc.contributor.author Pereira Barboza, Evelise
dc.contributor.author Cirach, Marta
dc.contributor.author Borrell i Thió, Carme
dc.contributor.author Zijlema, Wilma
dc.date.accessioned 2023-03-02T07:05:24Z
dc.date.available 2023-03-02T07:05:24Z
dc.date.issued 2022
dc.identifier.citation Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Dadvand P, Márquez S, Bartoll X, Barboza EP, Cirach M, Borrell C, Zijlema WL. The evaluation of the 3-30-300 green space rule and mental health. Environ Res. 2022 Dec;215(Pt 2):114387. DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2022.114387
dc.identifier.issn 0013-9351
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10230/56005
dc.description.abstract Background and aims: Urban green space has many health benefits, but it is still unclear how much actually is needed for better health. Recently a new 3-30-300 rule of thumb for urban forestry and urban greening has been proposed, but this rule has not been evaluated for benefits on health. The rule requires that every citizen should be able to see at least three trees from their home, have 30 percent tree canopy cover in their neighbourhood and not live more than 300 m away from the nearest park or green space. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the 3-30-300 green space rule and its components in relation to mental health. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study based on a population-based sample of 3145 individuals aged 15-97 years from in Barcelona, Spain who participated in the Barcelona Health Survey (2016-2017). We created 3-30-300 green space indicators using questionnaire data, GIS, remote sensing and land cover maps. Mental health status was assessed with the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and also the use of tranquilizer/sedatives or antidepressants and psychiatrist or psychologist visits. Analyses were conducted using mixed effects logistic regression models with districts as the random effect, adjusted for relevant covariates. Results: We found that people in Barcelona had relatively little exposure to green space, whether through window view, living in an area with sufficient greenness, or access to a major green space, and only 4.7% met a surrogate 3-30-300 green space rule. Residential surrounding greenness, but not tree window view or access to major green space, was significantly associated with better mental health, less medication use, and fewer psychologist or psychiatrist visits. Meeting the full surrogate 3-30-300 green space rule was associated with better mental health, less medication use, and fewer psychologist or psychiatrist visits, but only for the latter combined the association was statistically significant (Odds ratio = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.91). Conclusion: Few people achieved the 3-30-300 green space in Barcelona and we used a surrogate measure. We observed health benefits when the full surrogate rule was met.
dc.description.sponsorship We acknowledge support from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and State Research Agency through the “Centro de Excelencia Severo Ochoa 2019–2023 Program (CEX 2018-000806-S), support from the Generalitat through the CERCA program and GoGreenRoutes project through the European Union's Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under grant agreement No 869764.
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher Elsevier
dc.relation.ispartof Environ Res. 2022 Dec;215(Pt 2):114387
dc.rights © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.title The evaluation of the 3-30-300 green space rule and mental health
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2022.114387
dc.subject.keyword 3-30-300
dc.subject.keyword Anti-depressants
dc.subject.keyword Greenness
dc.subject.keyword Greenspace
dc.subject.keyword Medication use
dc.subject.keyword Mental health
dc.subject.keyword Psychiatrist visits
dc.subject.keyword Psychologist visits
dc.subject.keyword Sedatives
dc.subject.keyword Tranquilizer
dc.subject.keyword Tree cover
dc.relation.projectID info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/H2020/869764
dc.rights.accessRights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.type.version info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion


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