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Papers please: predictive factors of national and international attitudes toward immunity and vaccination passports: online representative surveys

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dc.contributor.author Garrett, Paul M.
dc.contributor.author White, Joshua P.
dc.contributor.author Dennis, Simon
dc.contributor.author Lewandowsky, Stephan
dc.contributor.author Yang, Cheng-Ta
dc.contributor.author Okan, Yasmina
dc.contributor.author Perfors, Andrew
dc.contributor.author Little, Daniel R.
dc.contributor.author Kozyreva, Anastasia
dc.contributor.author Lorenz-Spreen, Philipp
dc.contributor.author Kusumi, Takashi
dc.contributor.author Kashima, Yoshihisa
dc.date.accessioned 2023-02-24T07:04:21Z
dc.date.available 2023-02-24T07:04:21Z
dc.date.issued 2022
dc.identifier.citation Garrett PM, White JP, Dennis S, Lewandowsky S, Yang CT, Okan Y, Perfors A, Little DR, Kozyreva A, Lorenz-Spreen P, Kusumi T, Kashima Y. Papers please: predictive factors of national and international attitudes toward immunity and vaccination passports: online representative surveys. JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2022;8(7):e32969. DOI: 10.2196/32969
dc.identifier.issn 2369-2960
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10230/55911
dc.description.abstract Background: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, countries are introducing digital passports that allow citizens to return to normal activities if they were previously infected with (immunity passport) or vaccinated against (vaccination passport) SARS-CoV-2. To be effective, policy decision-makers must know whether these passports will be widely accepted by the public and under what conditions. This study focuses attention on immunity passports, as these may prove useful in countries both with and without an existing COVID-19 vaccination program; however, our general findings also extend to vaccination passports. Objective: We aimed to assess attitudes toward the introduction of immunity passports in six countries, and determine what social, personal, and contextual factors predicted their support. Methods: We collected 13,678 participants through online representative sampling across six countries—Australia, Japan, Taiwan, Germany, Spain, and the United Kingdom—during April to May of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic, and assessed attitudes and support for the introduction of immunity passports. Results: Immunity passport support was moderate to low, being the highest in Germany (775/1507 participants, 51.43%) and the United Kingdom (759/1484, 51.15%); followed by Taiwan (2841/5989, 47.44%), Australia (963/2086, 46.16%), and Spain (693/1491, 46.48%); and was the lowest in Japan (241/1081, 22.94%). Bayesian generalized linear mixed effects modeling was used to assess predictive factors for immunity passport support across countries. International results showed neoliberal worldviews (odds ratio [OR] 1.17, 95% CI 1.13-1.22), personal concern (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.00-1.16), perceived virus severity (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.14), the fairness of immunity passports (OR 2.51, 95% CI 2.36-2.66), liking immunity passports (OR 2.77, 95% CI 2.61-2.94), and a willingness to become infected to gain an immunity passport (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.51-1.68) were all predictive factors of immunity passport support. By contrast, gender (woman; OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.82-0.98), immunity passport concern (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.57-0.65), and risk of harm to society (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.67-0.76) predicted a decrease in support for immunity passports. Minor differences in predictive factors were found between countries and results were modeled separately to provide national accounts of these data. Conclusions: Our research suggests that support for immunity passports is predicted by the personal benefits and societal risks they confer. These findings generalized across six countries and may also prove informative for the introduction of vaccination passports, helping policymakers to introduce effective COVID-19 passport policies in these six countries and around the world.
dc.description.sponsorship Data collection in Australia was supported by anonymous philanthropic funding to the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity to SD. Data collection in Germany was funded by the planning grant of the Volkswagen Foundation to RH, SL, and SH (Initiative “Artificial Intelligence and the Society of the Future”). SL was supported by a Research Award from the Humboldt Foundation in Germany while this research was conducted. SL also received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under grant agreement 964728 (JITSUVAX). Data collection in Taiwan was supported by the National Cheng Kung University and Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST 110-2321-B-006-004 and MOST 108-2321-B-006-022-MY2) to CTY. Data collection in the United Kingdom was supported by the Elizabeth Blackwell Institute, University of Bristol, with funding from the University’s Alumni and Friends fund. Data collection in Spain was supported by funding from Leeds University Business School, University of Leeds to YO, who was in part supported by a Population Research Fellowship awarded by Cancer Research UK (C57775/A22182). Data collection in Japan was supported by funding from the School of Psychological Sciences, the University of Melbourne, and provided to YK.
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher JMIR Publications
dc.relation.ispartof JMIR Public Health and Surveillance. 2022;8(7):e32969.
dc.relation.isreferencedby https://jmir.org/api/download?alt_name=publichealth_v8i7e32969_app1.docx&filename=de9477469453e6ba45267ae36de7c83f.docx
dc.relation.isreferencedby https://jmir.org/api/download?alt_name=publichealth_v8i7e32969_app2.docx&filename=3eccf691600e0a0ab5f42432f450a9c0.docx
dc.relation.isreferencedby https://jmir.org/api/download?alt_name=publichealth_v8i7e32969_app3.docx&filename=f59dcf28356c4ff8b29a6492d9be790c.docx
dc.rights © Paul M Garrett, Joshua P White, Simon Dennis, Stephan Lewandowsky, Cheng-Ta Yang, Yasmina Okan, Andrew Perfors, Daniel R Little, Anastasia Kozyreva, Philipp Lorenz-Spreen, Takashi Kusumi, Yoshihisa Kashima. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (https://publichealth.jmir.org), 15.07.2022. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on https://publichealth.jmir.org, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.
dc.rights.uri https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.title Papers please: predictive factors of national and international attitudes toward immunity and vaccination passports: online representative surveys
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/32969
dc.subject.keyword COVID-19
dc.subject.keyword immunity passport
dc.subject.keyword vaccination passport
dc.subject.keyword cross-cultural
dc.subject.keyword health policy
dc.subject.keyword digital certificates
dc.subject.keyword SARS-CoV-2
dc.subject.keyword vaccine
dc.subject.keyword policy
dc.subject.keyword international
dc.relation.projectID info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/H2020/964728
dc.rights.accessRights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.type.version info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

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