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Interleaved intramuscular stimulation with minimally overlapping electrodes evokes smooth and fatigue resistant forces

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dc.contributor.author Eladly, Ahmed Fayed
dc.contributor.author Del Valle, Jaume
dc.contributor.author Minguillon, Jesus
dc.contributor.author Mercadal, Borja
dc.contributor.author Becerra Fajardo, Laura
dc.contributor.author Navarro, Xavier
dc.contributor.author Ivorra Cano, Antoni, 1974-
dc.date.accessioned 2020-11-12T08:40:49Z
dc.date.available 2020-11-12T08:40:49Z
dc.date.issued 2020
dc.identifier.citation Eladly A, Del Valle J, Minguillon J, Mercadal B, Becerra-Fajardo L, Navarro X, Ivorra A. Interleaved intramuscular stimulation with minimally overlapping electrodes evokes smooth and fatigue resistant forces. J Neural Eng. 2020 Aug 17;17(4):046037. DOI: 10.1088/1741-2552/aba99e
dc.identifier.issn 1741-2560
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10230/45736
dc.description.abstract Objective. It is known that multi-site interleaved stimulation generates less muscle fatigue compared to single-site synchronous stimulation. However, in the limited number of studies in which intramuscular electrodes were used, the fatigue reduction associated with interleaved stimulation could not consistently be achieved. We hypothesize that this could be due to the inability to place the intramuscular electrodes used in interleaved stimulation in locations that minimize overlap amongst the motor units activated by the electrodes. Our objective in the present study was to use independent intramuscular electrodes to compare fatigue induced by interleaved stimulation with that generated by synchronous stimulation at the same initial force and ripple. Approach. In the medial gastrocnemius muscle of an anesthetized rabbit (n = 3), ten intramuscular hook wire electrodes were inserted at different distances from the nerve entry. Overlap was measured using the refractory technique and only three electrodes were found to be highly independent. After ensuring that forces obtained by both stimulation modalities had the same ripple and magnitude, fatigue induced during interleaved stimulation across three independent distal electrodes was compared to that obtained by synchronously delivering pulses to a single proximal electrode. Main results. Contractions evoked by interleaved stimulation exhibited less fatigue than those evoked by synchronous stimulation. Twitch force recruitment curves collected from each of the ten intramuscular electrodes showed frequent intermediate plateaus and the force value at these plateaus decreased as the distance between the electrode and nerve entry increased. Significance. The results indicate that interleaved intramuscular stimulation is preferred over synchronous intramuscular stimulation when fatigue-resistant and smooth forces are desired. In addition, the results suggest that the large muscle compartments innervated by the primary intramuscular nerve branches give rise to progressively smaller independent compartments in subsequent nerve divisions.
dc.description.sponsorship This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement No. 724244). AI gratefully acknowledges the financial support by ICREA under the ICREA Academia programme. JdV and XN were supported by project GRAFIN PCI2018-093029, funded by Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades and European Union ERDF/ESF.
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher IOP Publishing Ltd.
dc.relation.ispartof Journal of Neural Engineering. 2020 Aug 17;17(4):046037
dc.rights Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.
dc.rights.uri https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.title Interleaved intramuscular stimulation with minimally overlapping electrodes evokes smooth and fatigue resistant forces
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1741-2552/aba99e
dc.subject.keyword Interleaved
dc.subject.keyword Synchronous
dc.subject.keyword Ntramuscular stimulation
dc.subject.keyword Fatigue
dc.subject.keyword Stimulation overlap
dc.subject.keyword Ripple
dc.subject.keyword Neuromuscular compartments
dc.relation.projectID info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/ES/2PE/PCI2018-093029
dc.relation.projectID info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/H2020/724244
dc.rights.accessRights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.type.version info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion


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