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Enamel proteome shows that Gigantopithecus was an early diverging pongine

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dc.contributor.author Welker, Frido
dc.contributor.author Ramos-Madrigal, Jazmín
dc.contributor.author Kuhlwilm, Martin
dc.contributor.author Liao, Wei
dc.contributor.author Gutenbrunner, Petra
dc.contributor.author de Manuel, Marc
dc.contributor.author Samodova, Diana
dc.contributor.author Mackie, Meaghan
dc.contributor.author Allentoft, Morten E.
dc.contributor.author Bacon, Anne-Marie
dc.contributor.author Collins, Matthew J.
dc.contributor.author Cox, Jürgen
dc.contributor.author Lalueza Fox, Carles, 1965-
dc.contributor.author Olsen, Jesper V.
dc.contributor.author Demeter, Fabrice
dc.contributor.author Wang, Wei
dc.contributor.author Marquès i Bonet, Tomàs, 1975-
dc.contributor.author Cappellini, Enrico
dc.date.accessioned 2023-04-28T06:05:40Z
dc.date.available 2023-04-28T06:05:40Z
dc.date.issued 2019
dc.identifier.citation Welker F, Ramos-Madrigal J, Kuhlwilm M, Liao W, Gutenbrunner P, de Manuel M, Samodova D, Mackie M, Allentoft ME, Bacon AM, Collins MJ, Cox J, Lalueza-Fox C, Olsen JV, Demeter F, Wang W, Marques-Bonet T, Cappellini E. Enamel proteome shows that Gigantopithecus was an early diverging pongine. Nature. 2019;576(7786):262-5. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1728-8
dc.identifier.issn 0028-0836
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10230/56606
dc.description.abstract Gigantopithecus blacki was a giant hominid that inhabited densely forested environments of Southeast Asia during the Pleistocene epoch1. Its evolutionary relationships to other great ape species, and the divergence of these species during the Middle and Late Miocene epoch (16-5.3 million years ago), remain unclear2,3. Hypotheses regarding the relationships between Gigantopithecus and extinct and extant hominids are wide ranging but difficult to substantiate because of its highly derived dentognathic morphology, the absence of cranial and post-cranial remains1,3-6, and the lack of independent molecular validation. We retrieved dental enamel proteome sequences from a 1.9-million-year-old G. blacki molar found in Chuifeng Cave, China7,8. The thermal age of these protein sequences is approximately five times greater than that of any previously published mammalian proteome or genome. We demonstrate that Gigantopithecus is a sister clade to orangutans (genus Pongo) with a common ancestor about 12-10 million years ago, implying that the divergence of Gigantopithecus from Pongo forms part of the Miocene radiation of great apes. In addition, we hypothesize that the expression of alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein, which has not been previously observed in enamel proteomes, had a role in the biomineralization of the thick enamel crowns that characterize the large molars in Gigantopithecus9,10. The survival of an Early Pleistocene dental enamel proteome in the subtropics further expands the scope of palaeoproteomic analysis into geographical areas and time periods previously considered incompatible with the preservation of substantial amounts of genetic information.
dc.description.sponsorship E.C. and F.W. are supported by VILLUM FONDEN (17649) and by the European Commission through a Marie Skłodowska-Curie (MSCA) Individual Fellowship (795569). T.M.-B. is supported by BFU2017-86471-P (MINECO/FEDER, UE), NIHM grant U01 MH106874, Howard Hughes International Early Career grant, Obra Social ‘La Caixa’ and Secretaria d’Universitats i Recerca and CERCA Programme del Departament d’Economia i Coneixement de la Generalitat de Catalunya (GRC 2017 SGR 880). E.C., J.C., J.V.O., D.S. and P.G. are supported by the Marie Skłodowska-Curie European Training Network (ETN) TEMPERA, a project funded by the European Union’s EU Framework Program for Research and Innovation Horizon 2020 under grant agreement no. 722606. M.J.C. and M.M. are supported by the Danish National Research Foundation award PROTEIOS (DNRF128). Work at the Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research is funded in part by a donation from the Novo Nordisk Foundation (NNF14CC0001). Research at Chuifeng Cave is made possible by support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41572023) and by a grant from the Bagui Scholar of Guangxi. M.K. was supported by a Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) fellowship (KU 3467/1-1) and the Postdoctoral Junior Leader Fellowship Programme from ‘la Caixa’ Banking Foundation (LCF/BQ/PR19/11700002). M.E.A. is supported by the Independent Research Fund Denmark (7027-00147B). We thank E. Willerslev for critical reading of the manuscript, scientific support and guidance.
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher Nature Research
dc.relation.ispartof Nature. 2019;576(7786):262-5
dc.rights © Springer Nature Publishing AG Welker F, Ramos-Madrigal J, Kuhlwilm M, Liao W, Gutenbrunner P, de Manuel M, Samodova D, Mackie M, Allentoft ME, Bacon AM, Collins MJ, Cox J, Lalueza-Fox C, Olsen JV, Demeter F, Wang W, Marques-Bonet T, Cappellini E. Enamel proteome shows that Gigantopithecus was an early diverging pongine. Nature. 2019;576(7786):262-5 [http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1728-8]
dc.title Enamel proteome shows that Gigantopithecus was an early diverging pongine
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1728-8
dc.subject.keyword Biological anthropology
dc.subject.keyword Palaeontology
dc.subject.keyword Phylogenetics
dc.subject.keyword Proteomics
dc.relation.projectID info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/H2020/795569
dc.relation.projectID info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/ES/2PE/BFU2017-86471-P
dc.relation.projectID info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/H2020/722606
dc.rights.accessRights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.type.version info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion

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