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Maternal and neonatal immune response to SARS-CoV-2, IgG transplacental transfer and cytokine profile

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dc.contributor.author Rubio, Rocío
dc.contributor.author Aguilar, Ruth
dc.contributor.author Bustamante Pineda, Mariona
dc.contributor.author Muñoz, Erica
dc.contributor.author Vázquez-Santiago, Miquel
dc.contributor.author Santano, Rebeca
dc.contributor.author Vidal, Marta
dc.contributor.author Rodrigo Melero, Natalia
dc.contributor.author Parras, Daniel
dc.contributor.author Serra, Pau
dc.contributor.author Santamaria, Pere
dc.contributor.author Carolis, Carlo
dc.contributor.author Izquierdo, Luis
dc.contributor.author Gómez-Roig, María Dolores
dc.contributor.author Dobaño, Carlota
dc.contributor.author Moncunill, Gemma
dc.contributor.author Mazarico, Edurne
dc.date.accessioned 2023-01-18T07:34:58Z
dc.date.available 2023-01-18T07:34:58Z
dc.date.issued 2022
dc.identifier.citation Rubio R, Aguilar R, Bustamante M, Muñoz E, Vázquez-Santiago M, Santano R, Vidal M, Melero NR, Parras D, Serra P, Santamaria P, Carolis C, Izquierdo L, Gómez-Roig MD, Dobaño C, Moncunill G, Mazarico E. Maternal and neonatal immune response to SARS-CoV-2, IgG transplacental transfer and cytokine profile. Front Immunol. 2022 Sep 27;13:999136. DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.999136
dc.identifier.issn 1664-3224
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10230/55323
dc.description.abstract SARS-CoV-2 infected pregnant women are at increased risk of severe COVID-19 than non-pregnant women and have a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes like intrauterine/fetal distress and preterm birth. However, little is known about the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on maternal and neonatal immunological profiles. In this study, we investigated the inflammatory and humoral responses to SARS-CoV-2 in maternal and cord blood paired samples. Thirty-six pregnant women were recruited at delivery at Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain, between April-August 2020, before having COVID-19 available vaccines. Maternal and pregnancy variables, as well as perinatal outcomes, were recorded in questionnaires. Nasopharyngeal swabs and maternal and cord blood samples were collected for SARS-CoV-2 detection by rRT-PCR and serology, respectively. We measured IgM, IgG and IgA levels to 6 SARS-CoV-2 antigens (spike [S], S1, S2, receptor-binding domain [RBD], nucleocapsid [N] full-length and C-terminus), IgG to N from 4 human coronaviruses (OC43, HKU1, 229E and NL63), and the concentrations of 30 cytokines, chemokines and growth factors by Luminex. Mothers were classified as infected or non-infected based on the rRT-PCR and serology results. Sixty-four % of pregnant women were infected with SARS-CoV-2 (positive by rRT-PCR during the third trimester and/or serology just after delivery). None of the newborns tested positive for rRT-PCR. SARS-CoV-2 infected mothers had increased levels of virus-specific antibodies and several cytokines. Those with symptoms had higher cytokine levels. IFN-α was increased in cord blood from infected mothers, and in cord blood of symptomatic mothers, EGF, FGF, IL-17 and IL-15 were increased, whereas RANTES was decreased. Maternal IgG and cytokine levels showed positive correlations with their counterparts in cord blood. rRT-PCR positive mothers showed lower transfer of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgGs, with a stronger effect when infection was closer to delivery. SARS-CoV-2 infected mothers carrying a male fetus had higher antibody levels and higher EGF, IL-15 and IL-7 concentrations. Our results show that SARS-CoV-2 infection during the third trimester of pregnancy induces a robust antibody and cytokine response at delivery and causes a significant reduction of the SARS-CoV-2-specific IgGs transplacental transfer, with a stronger negative effect when the infection is closer to delivery.
dc.description.sponsorship This work was supported by the Fundació Privada Daniel Bravo Andreu. RR had the support of the Health Department, Catalan Government (PERIS SLT017/20/000224). LI work was supported by the PID2019-110810RB-I00 grant from the Spanish Ministry of Science & Innovation. We acknowledge support from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and State Research Agency through the “Centro de Excelencia Severo Ochoa 2019-2023” Program (CEX2018-000806-S), and support from the Generalitat de Catalunya through the CERCA Program.
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher Frontiers
dc.relation.ispartof Front Immunol. 2022 Sep 27;13:999136
dc.rights © 2022 Rubio, Aguilar, Bustamante, Muñoz, Vázquez-Santiago, Santano, Vidal, Melero, Parras, Serra, Santamaria, Carolis, Izquierdo, Gómez-Roig, Dobaño, Moncunill and Mazarico. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.title Maternal and neonatal immune response to SARS-CoV-2, IgG transplacental transfer and cytokine profile
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.999136
dc.subject.keyword SARS-CoV-2
dc.subject.keyword Antibodies
dc.subject.keyword Cytokines
dc.subject.keyword Maternal and neonatal immunity
dc.subject.keyword Transplacental transfer
dc.relation.projectID info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/ES/2PE/PID2019-110810RB-I00
dc.rights.accessRights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.type.version info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion


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