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Epidemiology and costs of depressive disorder in Spain: the EPICO study

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dc.contributor.author Vieta, Eduard
dc.contributor.author Alonso Caballero, Jordi
dc.contributor.author Pérez Solá, Victor
dc.contributor.author Roca, Miquel
dc.contributor.author Hernando, Teresa
dc.contributor.author Sicras Navarro, Aram
dc.contributor.author Herrera, Berta
dc.contributor.author Gabilondo Cuéllar, Andrea
dc.date.accessioned 2021-07-20T06:30:42Z
dc.date.available 2021-07-20T06:30:42Z
dc.date.issued 2021
dc.identifier.citation Vieta E, Alonso J, Pérez-Sola V, Roca M, Hernando T, Sicras-Mainar A, Sicras-Navarro A, Herrera B, Gabilondo A. Epidemiology and costs of depressive disorder in Spain: the EPICO study. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2021;50:93-103. DOI: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2021.04.022
dc.identifier.issn 0924-977X
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10230/48237
dc.description.abstract Depressive Disorders are the most common psychiatric diagnoses in the general population. To estimate the frequency, costs associated with Depressive Disorders in usual clinical practice, and in the whole Spanish population, a longitudinal, retrospective, observational study was carried out using data from the BIG-PAC database®. Study population: all patients aged ≥ 18 years with a diagnosis of a Depressive Disorder in 2015-2017. Prevalence was computed as the proportion of Depressive Disorder cases in the adult general population, and the incidence rate, as the number of new Depressive Disorder cases diagnosed per 1,000 person-years in the population using health services, during 2015-2017. We collected demographic variables, comorbidity, direct health costs, and indirect costs (temporary and permanent disability). Health costs related to Depressive Disorders were estimated according to the annual resource use rate (resource/patient/year). Indirect costs were calculated according to the human capital method. Using the study data and information from the Spanish National Institute of Statistics, we estimated the cost of Depressive Disorders corresponding to the Spanish adult population, including premature mortality. 69,217 Depressive Disorder patients aged ≥ 18 years who met the inclusion/exclusion criteria were studied (mean age: 56.8 years; female: 71.4%). Prevalence of Depressive Disorders in the general population was 4.73% (95% CI: 4.70-4.76%). Annual incidence rates (2015-2017) were 7.12, 7.35 and 8.02 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. Total costs observed in our Depressive Disorder patients were € 223.9 million (corresponding to a mean of € 3,235.3; mean/patient/year), of which, 18.4% were direct health care costs and 81.6%, non-health indirect costs (18% temporary occupational disability, 63.6% permanent disability). Considering also the cost of premature death, the mean cost per patient/year was € 3,402 and the estimated societal costs of Depressive Disorders in Spain were € 6,145 million. The prevalence and incidence of Depressive Disorders are consistent with other series reviewed. Resource use and total costs (especially non-health costs) were high.
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher Elsevier
dc.relation.ispartof Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2021;50:93-103
dc.rights © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.title Epidemiology and costs of depressive disorder in Spain: the EPICO study
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2021.04.022
dc.subject.keyword Depressive disorder
dc.subject.keyword Epidemiology
dc.subject.keyword Health costs
dc.subject.keyword Non-health costs
dc.rights.accessRights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.type.version info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion


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