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Effects of environmental factors on severity and mortality of COVID-19

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dc.contributor.author Kifer, Domagoj
dc.contributor.author Villar García, Judit
dc.contributor.author Posso, Margarita
dc.contributor.author Horcajada Gallego, Juan Pablo
dc.contributor.author Castells, Xavier
dc.contributor.author Pascual, Julio (Pascual Santos)
dc.contributor.author Barrios Barrera, Clara
dc.contributor.author Lauc, Gordan
dc.date.accessioned 2021-06-16T06:48:43Z
dc.date.available 2021-06-16T06:48:43Z
dc.date.issued 2021
dc.identifier.citation Kifer D, Bugada D, Villar-Garcia J, Gudelj I, Menni C, Sudre C et al. Effects of environmental factors on severity and mortality of COVID-19. Front Med (Lausanne). 2021; 7:607786. DOI: 10.3389/fmed.2020.607786
dc.identifier.issn 2296-858X
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10230/47896
dc.description.abstract Background: Most respiratory viruses show pronounced seasonality, but for SARS-CoV-2, this still needs to be documented. Methods: We examined the disease progression of COVID-19 in 6,914 patients admitted to hospitals in Europe and China. In addition, we evaluated progress of disease symptoms in 37,187 individuals reporting symptoms into the COVID Symptom Study application. Findings: Meta-analysis of the mortality risk in seven European hospitals estimated odds ratios per 1-day increase in the admission date to be 0.981 (0.973-0.988, p < 0.001) and per increase in ambient temperature of 1°C to be 0.854 (0.773-0.944, p = 0.007). Statistically significant decreases of comparable magnitude in median hospital stay, probability of transfer to the intensive care unit, and need for mechanical ventilation were also observed in most, but not all hospitals. The analysis of individually reported symptoms of 37,187 individuals in the UK also showed the decrease in symptom duration and disease severity with time. Interpretation: Severity of COVID-19 in Europe decreased significantly between March and May and the seasonality of COVID-19 is the most likely explanation.
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher Frontiers
dc.relation.ispartof Front Med (Lausanne). 2021; 7:607786
dc.rights © 2021 Kifer, Bugada, Villar-Garcia, Gudelj, Menni, Sudre, Vučković, Ugrina, Lorini, Posso, Bettinelli, Ughi, Maloberti, Epis, Giannattasio, Rossetti, Kalogjera, Peršec, Ollivere, Ollivere, Yan, Cai, Aithal, Steves, Kantele, Kajova, Vapalahti, Sajantila, Wojtowicz, Wierzba, Krol, Zaczynski, Zycinska, Postula, Lukšić, Čivljak, Markotić, Brachmann, Markl, Mahnkopf, Murray, Ourselin, Valdes, Horcajada, Castells, Pascual, Allegri, Primorac, Spector, Barrios and Lauc. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.title Effects of environmental factors on severity and mortality of COVID-19
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2020.607786
dc.subject.keyword COVID-19
dc.subject.keyword Humidity
dc.subject.keyword Mortality
dc.subject.keyword Mucins
dc.subject.keyword Seasonality
dc.rights.accessRights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.type.version info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion


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