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Urban environment during early-life and blood pressure in young children

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dc.contributor.author Warembourg, Charline
dc.contributor.author Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.
dc.contributor.author Ballester Díez, Ferran
dc.contributor.author de Castro, Montserrat
dc.contributor.author Chatzi, Leda
dc.contributor.author Esplugues, Ana
dc.contributor.author Heude, Barbara
dc.contributor.author Maitre, Léa
dc.contributor.author McEachan, Rosemary R.C.
dc.contributor.author Robinson, Oliver
dc.contributor.author Slama, Rémy
dc.contributor.author Sunyer Deu, Jordi
dc.contributor.author Urquiza, José M.
dc.contributor.author Wright, John
dc.contributor.author Basagaña Flores, Xavier
dc.contributor.author Vrijheid, Martine
dc.date.accessioned 2021-02-02T06:56:08Z
dc.date.available 2021-02-02T06:56:08Z
dc.date.issued 2021
dc.identifier.citation Warembourg C, Nieuwenhuijsen M, Ballester F, de Castro M, Chatzi L, Esplugues A, Heude B, Maitre L, McEachan R, Robinson O, Slama R, Sunyer J, Urquiza J, Wright J, Basagaña X, Vrijheid M. Urban environment during early-life and blood pressure in young children. Environ Int. 2021; 146:106174. DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2020.106174
dc.identifier.issn 0160-4120
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10230/46304
dc.description.abstract Background: The urban environment is characterised by many exposures that may influence hypertension development from early life onwards, but there is no systematic evaluation of their impact on child blood pressure (BP). Methods: Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured in 4,279 children aged 4-5 years from a multi-centre European cohort (France, Greece, Spain, and UK). Urban environment exposures were estimated during pregnancy and childhood, including air pollution, built environment, natural spaces, traffic, noise, meteorology, and socioeconomic deprivation index. Single- and multiple-exposure linear regression models and a cluster analysis were carried out. Results: In multiple exposure models, higher child BP, in particular diastolic BP, was observed in association with higher exposure to air pollution, noise and ambient temperature during pregnancy, and with higher exposure to air pollution and higher building density during childhood (e.g., mean change [95% confidence interval] for an interquartile range increase in prenatal NO2 = 0.7 mmHg[0.3;1.2]). Lower BP was observed in association with higher temperature and better street connectivity during childhood (e.g., temperature = -1.1[-1.6;-0.6]). Some of these associations were not robust in the sensitivity analyses. Mother-child pairs were grouped into six urban environment exposure clusters. Compared to the cluster representing the least harmful urban environment, the two clusters representing the most harmful environment (high in air pollution, traffic, noise, and low in green space) were both associated with higher diastolic BP (1.3[0.1;2.6] and 1.5[0.5;2.5]). Conclusion: This first large systematic study suggests that living in a harmful urban environment may impact BP regulation in children. These findings reinforce the importance of designing cities that promote healthy environments to reduce long-term risk of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.
dc.description.sponsorship This work was supported by funding from the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007–206 n°308333; the HELIX project], and by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme [H2020 n°733206; the LifeCycle project]. CW holds a Sara Borrell fellowship from the Instituto de Salud Carlos III [CD18/00132]. INMA data collections were supported by grants from the Instituto de Salud Carlos III, CIBERESP, and the Generalitat de Catalunya- CIRIT (Spain). The Rhea project was financially supported by European projects, and the Greek Ministry of Health (Program of Prevention of obesity and neurodevelopmental disorders in preschool children, in Heraklion district, Crete, Greece: 2011–2014; “Rhea Plus”: Primary Prevention Program of Environmental Risk Factors for Reproductive Health, and Child Health: 2012–15). The work was also supported by MICINN [MTM2015-68140-R] and Centro Nacional de Genotipado- CEGEN- PRB2- ISCIII (Spain). This paper presents independent research funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) under its Collaboration for Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) for Yorkshire and Humber (UK). Core support for Born in Bradford is also provided by the Wellcome Trust (WT101597MA, UK). The EDEN study was supported by Foundation for medical research (FRM), National Agency for Research (ANR), National Institute for Research in Public health (IRESP: TGIR cohorte santé 2008 program), French Ministry of Health (DGS), French Ministry of Research, INSERM Bone and Joint Diseases National Research (PRO-A), and Human Nutrition National Research Programs, Paris-Sud University, Nestlé, French National Institute for Population Health Surveillance (InVS), French National Institute for Health Education (INPES), the European Union FP7 programmes (ESCAPE, ENRIECO, Medall projects), Diabetes National Research Program (through a collaboration with the French Association of Diabetic Patients (AFD)), French Agency for Environmental Health Safety (now ANSES), Mutuelle Générale de l’Education Nationale a complementary health insurance (MGEN), French national agency for food security, French-speaking association for the study of diabetes and metabolism (ALFEDIAM).
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher Elsevier
dc.relation.ispartof Environ Int. 2021; 146:106174
dc.rights © 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
dc.rights.uri https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
dc.title Urban environment during early-life and blood pressure in young children
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.106174
dc.subject.keyword Blood pressure
dc.subject.keyword Children
dc.subject.keyword Cohort
dc.subject.keyword Urban environment
dc.relation.projectID info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/FP7/308333
dc.relation.projectID info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/H2020/733206
dc.rights.accessRights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.type.version info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

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