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Impact of urban environmental exposures on cognitive performance and brain structure of healthy individuals at risk for Alzheimer's dementia

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dc.contributor.author Crous-Bou, Marta
dc.contributor.author Gascon Merlos, Mireia, 1984-
dc.contributor.author Gispert López, Juan Domingo
dc.contributor.author Cirach, Marta
dc.contributor.author Sánchez Benavides, Gonzalo
dc.contributor.author Falcón, Carles
dc.contributor.author Arenaza Urquijo, Eider M.
dc.contributor.author Gotsens, Xavier
dc.contributor.author Fauria, Karine
dc.contributor.author Sunyer Deu, Jordi
dc.contributor.author Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.
dc.contributor.author Molinuevo, José Luis
dc.contributor.author ALFA Study
dc.date.accessioned 2020-05-05T07:29:48Z
dc.date.available 2020-05-05T07:29:48Z
dc.date.issued 2020
dc.identifier.citation Crous-Bou M, Gascon M, Gispert JD, Cirach M, Sánchez-Benavides G, Falcon C, Arenaza-Urquijo EM, Gotsens X, Fauria K, Sunyer J, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Luis Molinuevo J; ALFA Study. Impact of urban environmental exposures on cognitive performance and brain structure of healthy individuals at risk for Alzheimer's dementia. Environ Int. 2020; 138:105546. DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2020.105546
dc.identifier.issn 0160-4120
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10230/44399
dc.description.abstract Background: Air quality might contribute to incidence of dementia-related disorders, including Alzheimer’s dementia (AD). The aim of our study is to evaluate the effect of urban environmental exposures (including exposure to air pollution, noise and green space) on cognitive performance and brain structure of cognitively unimpaired individuals at risk for AD. Participants and methods: The ALFA (ALzheimer and FAmilies) study is a prospective cohort of middle-age, cognitively unimpaired subjects, many of them offspring of AD patients. Cognitive performance was measured by the administration of episodic memory and executive function tests (N = 958). Structural brain imaging was performed in a subsample of participants to obtain morphological information of brain areas, specially focused on cortical thickness, known to be affected by AD (N = 228). Land Use Regression models were used to estimate residential exposure to air pollutants. The daily average noise level at the street nearest to each participant's residential address was obtained from noise maps. For each participant residential green exposure indicators, such as surrounding greenness or amount of green, were generated. General linear models were conducted to assess the association between environmental exposures, cognitive performance and brain structure in a cross-sectional analysis. Results: No significant associations were observed between urban environmental exposures and the cognitive composite (p > 0.1). Higher exposure to air pollutants, but not noise, was associated with lower cortical thickness in brain regions known to be affected by AD, especially NO2 (β = −16.4; p = 0.05) and PM10 (β = −5.34; p = 0.05). On the other hand, increasing greenness indicators was associated with greater thickness in these same areas (β = 0.08; p = 0.03). Conclusion: In cognitively unimpaired adults with increased risk for AD, increased exposure to air pollution was suggested to be associated with greater global atrophy and reduced volume and thickness in specific brain areas known to be affected in AD, thus suggesting a potential link between environmental exposures and cerebral vulnerability to AD. Although more research in the field is needed, air pollution reduction is crucial for decreasing the burden of age-related disorders.
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher Elsevier
dc.relation.ispartof Environ Int. 2020; 138:105546
dc.rights © 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/BY-NC-ND/4.0/).
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/BY-NC-ND/4.0/
dc.title Impact of urban environmental exposures on cognitive performance and brain structure of healthy individuals at risk for Alzheimer's dementia
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105546
dc.subject.keyword Air pollution
dc.subject.keyword Alzheimer’s dementia
dc.subject.keyword Brain structure
dc.subject.keyword Cognitive performance
dc.subject.keyword Green space
dc.subject.keyword Noise
dc.subject.keyword Prevention
dc.subject.keyword Regions of interest
dc.subject.keyword Risk factors
dc.subject.keyword Urban environment
dc.rights.accessRights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.type.version info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

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