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Effect of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on basal ganglia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in primary school children

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dc.contributor.author Mortamais, Marion
dc.contributor.author Pujol Martí, Jesús, 1981-
dc.contributor.author van Drooge, Barend L.
dc.contributor.author Macià, Dídac
dc.contributor.author Martínez-Vilavella, Gerard
dc.contributor.author Reynes, Christelle
dc.contributor.author Sabatier, Robert
dc.contributor.author Rivas, Ioar
dc.contributor.author Grimalt Obrador, Joan
dc.contributor.author Forns i Guzman, Joan, 1981-
dc.contributor.author Álvarez Pedrerol, Mar
dc.contributor.author Querol, Xavier
dc.contributor.author Sunyer Deu, Jordi
dc.date.accessioned 2017-07-11T07:38:52Z
dc.date.available 2017-07-11T07:38:52Z
dc.date.issued 2017
dc.identifier.citation Mortamais M, Pujol Martí J, van Drooge BL, Macià D, Martínez-Vilavella G, Reynes C et al. Effect of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on basal ganglia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in primary school children. Environment International. 2017; 105: 12-19. DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2017.04.011
dc.identifier.issn 0160-4120
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10230/32523
dc.description.abstract Background: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been proposed as environmental risk factors for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The effects of these pollutants on brain structures potentially involved in the pathophysiology of ADHD are unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of PAHs on basal ganglia volumes and ADHD symptoms in school children. Methods: We conducted an imaging study in 242 children aged 8–12 years, recruited through a set of representative schools of the city of Barcelona, Spain. Indoor and outdoor PAHs and benzo[a]pyrene (BPA) levels were assessed in the school environment, one year before the MRI assessment. Whole-brain volumes and basal ganglia volumes (caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen) were derived from structural MRI scans using automated tissue segmentation. ADHD symptoms (ADHD/DSM-IV Scales, American Psychiatric Association 2002) were reported by teachers, and inattentiveness was evaluated with standard error of hit reaction time in the attention network computer-based test. Results: Total PAHs and BPA were associated with caudate nucleus volume (CNV) (i.e., an interquartile range increase in BPA outdoor level (67 pg/m3) and indoor level (76 pg/m3) was significantly linked to a decrease in CNV (mm3) (β = − 150.6, 95% CI [− 259.1, − 42.1], p = 0.007, and β = − 122.4, 95% CI [− 232.9, − 11.8], p = 0.030 respectively) independently of intracranial volume, age, sex, maternal education and socioeconomic vulnerability index at home). ADHD symptoms and inattentiveness increased in children with higher exposure to BPA, but these associations were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Exposure to PAHs, and in particular to BPA, is associated with subclinical changes on the caudate nucleus, even below the legislated annual target levels established in the European Union. The behavioral consequences of this induced brain change were not identified in this study, but given the caudate nucleus involvement in many crucial cognitive and behavior processes, this volume reduction is concerning for the children's neurodevelopment.
dc.description.sponsorship This work was supported by the European Research Council under the ERC [grant number 268479]—the BREATHE project. The Agency of University and Research Funding Management of the Catalonia Government participated in the context of Research Group SGR2014-1673. We also thank the Caixa Foundation for their financial support in the PAHs analyses.
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher Elsevier
dc.relation.ispartof Environment International. 2017; 105: 12-19
dc.rights © 2017 Mortamais M, et al. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/BY-NC-ND/4.0/). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2017.04.011
dc.rights.uri https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
dc.title Effect of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on basal ganglia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in primary school children
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2017.04.011
dc.subject.keyword Air pollution
dc.subject.keyword Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
dc.subject.keyword Structural neuroimaging
dc.subject.keyword Basal ganglia
dc.subject.keyword Caudate nucleus
dc.subject.keyword Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
dc.relation.projectID info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/FP7/268479
dc.rights.accessRights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.type.version info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

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