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Association between neurological soft signs, temperament and character in patients with schizophrenia and non-psychotic relatives.

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dc.contributor.author Galindo Guarín, Liliana
dc.contributor.author Pastoriza, Francisco
dc.contributor.author Berge Baquero, Daniel
dc.contributor.author Mané Santacana, Anna
dc.contributor.author Picado, Marisol
dc.contributor.author Bulbena Vilarrasa, Antonio
dc.contributor.author Robledo, Patricia, 1958-
dc.contributor.author Pérez Solá, Victor
dc.contributor.author Vilarroya, Óscar
dc.contributor.author Cloninger, Claude Robert
dc.date.accessioned 2016-07-28T08:16:38Z
dc.date.available 2016-07-28T08:16:38Z
dc.date.issued 2016
dc.identifier.citation Galindo L, Pastoriza F, Bergé D, Mané A, Picado M, Bulbena A. et al. Association between neurological soft signs, temperament and character in patients with schizophrenia and non-psychotic relatives. PeerJ. 2016 Apr 26;4:e1651. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.1651
dc.identifier.issn 2167-8359
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10230/27244
dc.description.abstract The heritability of schizophrenia and most personality traits has been well established, but the role of personality in susceptibility to schizophrenia remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to test for an association between personality traits and Neurological Soft Signs (NSS), a well-known biological marker of schizophrenia, in non-psychotic relatives of patients with schizophrenia. For this purpose, we evaluated the NSS scale and personality measured by the Temperament and Character inventory (TCI-R) in three groups of subjects: 29 patients with schizophrenia, 24 unaffected relatives and 37 controls. The results showed that patients with schizophrenia were more asocial (higher harm avoidance and lower reward dependence), more perseverative (higher persistence), and more schizotypal (lower self-directedness and cooperativeness, higher self-transcendence). The unaffected relatives showed higher harm avoidance, lower self-directedness and cooperativeness than the healthy controls. Higher NSS scores and sub-scores were found in patients and non-psychotic relatives compared with the controls. Among all the patients, total NSS scores were positively correlated with harm avoidance but negatively correlated with novelty seeking and persistence. Total NSS were also correlated with low scores on self-directedness and cooperativeness, which are indicators of personality disorder. Our results show that susceptibility to NSS and to schizophrenia are both related to individual differences in the temperament and character features in non-psychotic relatives of patients with schizophrenia. High harm avoidance, low persistence, low self-directedness and low cooperativeness contribute to both the risk of NSS and schizophrenia. These findings highlight the value of using both assessments to study high risk populations.
dc.description.sponsorship We received support from the ‘‘Red de Transtornos Adictivos’’ of the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (RD12/0028/0009) and the ‘‘Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental’’ (CIBERSAM G21). LG is a recipient of the ‘‘Río Hortega’’ fellowship from the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII-FIS, CM14/00111). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. The following grant information was disclosed by the authors: Red de Transtornos Adictivos of the Instituto de Salud Carlos III: RD12/0028/0009. Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental: CIBERSAM G21. Instituto de Salud Carlos III: ISCIII-FIS, CM14/00111.
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher PeerJ 
dc.relation.ispartof PeerJ. 2016 Apr 26;4:e1651
dc.rights ©2016 Galindo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction and adaptation in any medium and for any purpose provided that it is properly attributed. For attribution, the original author(s), title, publication source (PeerJ) and either DOI or URL of the article must be cited.
dc.rights.uri https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.subject.other Personalitat -- Aspectes psicològics
dc.subject.other Esquizofrènia
dc.subject.other Temperament
dc.subject.other Caràcter -- Aspectes psicològics
dc.title Association between neurological soft signs, temperament and character in patients with schizophrenia and non-psychotic relatives.
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.1651
dc.rights.accessRights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.type.version info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

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