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Effects of Mediterranean diet or mindfulness-based stress reduction on fetal and neonatal brain development: a secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial

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dc.contributor.author Nakaki, Ayako
dc.contributor.author Urru, Andrea
dc.contributor.author Piella Fenoy, Gemma
dc.contributor.author Comte, Valentin
dc.contributor.author Pozo Mendoza, Óscar J., 1975-
dc.contributor.author Gómez-Gómez, Àlex
dc.contributor.author González Ballester, Miguel Ángel, 1973-
dc.contributor.author Gratacós Solsona, Eduard
dc.date.accessioned 2024-04-24T06:48:29Z
dc.date.available 2024-04-24T06:48:29Z
dc.date.issued 2023
dc.identifier.citation Nakaki A, Crovetto F, Urru A, Piella G, Borras R, Comte V, et al. Effects of Mediterranean diet or mindfulness-based stress reduction on fetal and neonatal brain development: a secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM. 2023 Dec;5(12):101188. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajogmf.2023.101188
dc.identifier.issn 2589-9333
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10230/59885
dc.description.abstract Background: Maternal suboptimal nutrition and high stress levels are associated with adverse fetal and infant neurodevelopment. Objective: This study aimed to investigate if structured lifestyle interventions involving a Mediterranean diet or mindfulness-based stress reduction during pregnancy are associated with differences in fetal and neonatal brain development. Study design: This was a secondary analysis of the randomized clinical trial Improving Mothers for a Better Prenatal Care Trial Barcelona that was conducted in Barcelona, Spain, from 2017 to 2020. Participants with singleton pregnancies were randomly allocated into 3 groups, namely Mediterranean diet intervention, stress reduction program, or usual care. Participants in the Mediterranean diet group received monthly individual sessions and free provision of extra-virgin olive oil and walnuts. Pregnant women in the stress reduction group underwent an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction program adapted for pregnancy. Magnetic resonance imaging of 90 fetal brains was performed at 36 to 39 weeks of gestation and the Neonatal Neurobehavioral Assessment Scale was completed for 692 newborns at 1 to 3 months. Fetal outcomes were the total brain volume and lobular or regional volumes obtained from a 3-dimensional reconstruction and semiautomatic segmentation of magnetic resonance images. Neonatal outcomes were the 6 clusters scores of the Neonatal Neurobehavioral Assessment Scale. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between the interventions and the fetal and neonatal outcomes. Results: When compared with the usual care group, the offspring exposed to a maternal Mediterranean diet had a larger total fetal brain volume (mean, 284.11 cm3; standard deviation, 23.92 cm3 vs 294.01 cm3; standard deviation, 26.29 cm3; P=.04), corpus callosum (mean, 1.16 cm3; standard deviation, 0.19 cm3 vs 1.26 cm3; standard deviation, 0.22 cm3; P=.03), and right frontal lobe (44.20; standard deviation, 4.09 cm3 vs 46.60; standard deviation, 4.69 cm3; P=.02) volumes based on magnetic resonance imaging measures and higher scores in the Neonatal Neurobehavioral Assessment Scale clusters of autonomic stability (mean, 7.4; standard deviation, 0.9 vs 7.6; standard deviation, 0.7; P=.04), social interaction (mean, 7.5; standard deviation, 1.5 vs 7.8; standard deviation, 1.3; P=.03), and range of state (mean, 4.3; standard deviation, 1.3 vs 4.5; standard deviation, 1.0; P=.04). When compared with the usual care group, offspring from the stress reduction group had larger fetal left anterior cingulate gyri volume (1.63; standard deviation, 0.32 m3 vs 1.79; standard deviation, 0.30 cm3; P=.03) based on magnetic resonance imaging and higher scores in the Neonatal Neurobehavioral Assessment Scale for regulation of state (mean, 6.0; standard deviation, 1.8 vs 6.5; standard deviation, 1.5; P<.01). Conclusion: Maternal structured lifestyle interventions involving the promotion of a Mediterranean diet or stress reduction during pregnancy were associated with changes in fetal and neonatal brain development. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03166332.
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher Elsevier
dc.relation.ispartof Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM. 2023 Dec;5(12):101188
dc.rights © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.title Effects of Mediterranean diet or mindfulness-based stress reduction on fetal and neonatal brain development: a secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajogmf.2023.101188
dc.subject.keyword Fetal brain
dc.subject.keyword MRI
dc.subject.keyword Maternal intervention
dc.subject.keyword Mediterranean diet
dc.subject.keyword Midfulness-based stress reduction
dc.subject.keyword Neurodevelopment
dc.rights.accessRights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.type.version info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

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