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The definitions of three‐dimensional landmarks on the human face: an interdisciplinary view

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dc.contributor.author Katina, Stanislav
dc.contributor.author McNeil, Kathryn
dc.contributor.author Ayoub, Ashraf
dc.contributor.author Guilfoyle, Brendan
dc.contributor.author Khambay, Balvinder
dc.contributor.author Siebert, Paul
dc.contributor.author Sukno, Federico Mateo
dc.contributor.author Rojas, Mario A.
dc.contributor.author Vittert, Liberty
dc.contributor.author Waddington, John L.
dc.contributor.author Whelan, Paul F.
dc.contributor.author Bowman, Adrian W.
dc.date.accessioned 2024-01-29T07:22:00Z
dc.date.available 2024-01-29T07:22:00Z
dc.date.issued 2016
dc.identifier.citation Katina S, McNeil K, Ayoub A, Guilfoyle B, Khambay B, Siebert P, et al. The definitions of three‐dimensional landmarks on the human face: an interdisciplinary view. Journal of Anatomy. 2016 Mar;228(3):355-65. DOI: 10.1111/joa.12407
dc.identifier.issn 0021-8782
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10230/58850
dc.description.abstract The analysis of shape is a key part of anatomical research and in the large majority of cases landmarks provide a standard starting point. However, while the technology of image capture has developed rapidly and in particular three-dimensional imaging is widely available, the definitions of anatomical landmarks remain rooted in their two-dimensional origins. In the important case of the human face, standard definitions often require careful orientation of the subject. This paper considers the definitions of facial landmarks from an interdisciplinary perspective, including biological and clinical motivations, issues associated with imaging and subsequent analysis, and the mathematical definition of surface shape using differential geometry. This last perspective provides a route to definitions of landmarks based on surface curvature, often making use of ridge and valley curves, which is genuinely three-dimensional and is independent of orientation. Specific definitions based on curvature are proposed. These are evaluated, along with traditional definitions, in a study that uses a hierarchical (random effects) model to estimate the error variation that is present at several different levels within the image capture process. The estimates of variation at these different levels are of interest in their own right but, in addition, evidence is provided that variation is reduced at the observer level when the new landmark definitions are used.
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher Wiley
dc.relation.ispartof Journal of Anatomy. 2016 Mar;228(3):355-65
dc.rights © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Anatomical Society. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.title The definitions of three‐dimensional landmarks on the human face: an interdisciplinary view
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joa.12407
dc.subject.keyword Curves
dc.subject.keyword Landmarks
dc.subject.keyword Reproducibility
dc.subject.keyword Shape
dc.rights.accessRights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.type.version info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion


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