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Cloxacillin plus fosfomycin versus cloxacillin alone for methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a randomized trial

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dc.contributor.author Grillo, Sara
dc.contributor.author Gómez-Zorrilla, Silvia
dc.contributor.author SAFO study group
dc.date.accessioned 2024-01-16T07:11:43Z
dc.date.available 2024-01-16T07:11:43Z
dc.date.issued 2023
dc.identifier.citation Grillo S, Pujol M, Miró JM, López-Contreras J, Euba G, Gasch O, et al. Cloxacillin plus fosfomycin versus cloxacillin alone for methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a randomized trial. Nat Med. 2023 Oct;29(10):2518-25. DOI: 10.1038/s41591-023-02569-0
dc.identifier.issn 1078-8956
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10230/58731
dc.description.abstract Treatment failure occurs in about 25% of patients with methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia. We assessed whether cloxacillin plus fosfomycin achieves better treatment success than cloxacillin alone in hospitalized adults with MSSA bacteremia. We conducted a multicenter, open-label, phase III-IV superiority randomized clinical trial. We randomly assigned patients (1:1) to receive 2 g of intravenous cloxacillin alone every 4 h or with 3 g of intravenous fosfomycin every 6 h for the initial 7 days. The primary endpoint was treatment success at day 7, a composite endpoint with the following criteria: patient alive, stable or with improved quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, afebrile and with negative blood cultures for MSSA, adjudicated by an independent committee blinded to treatment allocation. We randomized 215 patients, of whom 105 received cloxacillin plus fosfomycin and 110 received cloxacillin alone. We analyzed the primary endpoint with the intention-to-treat approach in 214 patients who received at least 1 day of treatment. Treatment success at day 7 after randomization was achieved in 83 (79.8%) of 104 patients receiving combination treatment versus 82 (74.5%) of 110 patients receiving monotherapy (risk difference 5.3%; 95% confidence interval (CI), -5.95-16.48). Secondary endpoints, including mortality and adverse events, were similar in the two groups except for persistent bacteremia at day 3, which was less common in the combination arm. In a prespecified interim analysis, the independent committee recommended stopping recruitment for futility prior to meeting the planned randomization of 366 patients. Cloxacillin plus fosfomycin did not achieve better treatment success at day 7 of therapy than cloxacillin alone in MSSA bacteremia. Further trials should consider the intrinsic heterogeneity of the infection by using a more personalized approach. ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT03959345 .
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher Nature Research
dc.relation.ispartof Nat Med. 2023 Oct;29(10):2518-25
dc.rights © The Author(s) 2023. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.title Cloxacillin plus fosfomycin versus cloxacillin alone for methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a randomized trial
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-023-02569-0
dc.subject.keyword Antimicrobial therapy
dc.subject.keyword Randomized controlled trials
dc.rights.accessRights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.type.version info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

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