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Availability, accessibility, and use of green spaces and cognitive development in primary school children

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dc.contributor.author Fernandes, Amanda
dc.contributor.author Krog, Norun Hjertager
dc.contributor.author McEachan, Rosemary R.C.
dc.contributor.author Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.
dc.contributor.author Julvez, Jordi
dc.contributor.author Márquez, Sandra
dc.contributor.author Castro, Montserrat de
dc.contributor.author Urquiza, José M.
dc.contributor.author Heude, Barbara
dc.contributor.author Vafeiadi, Marina, 1983-
dc.contributor.author Gražulevičienė, Regina
dc.contributor.author Slama, Rémy
dc.contributor.author Dedele, Audrius
dc.contributor.author Aasvang, Gunn Marit
dc.contributor.author Evandt, Jorunn
dc.contributor.author Andrušaitytė, Sandra
dc.contributor.author Kampouri, Mariza
dc.contributor.author Vrijheid, Martine
dc.date.accessioned 2023-11-10T07:04:40Z
dc.date.available 2023-11-10T07:04:40Z
dc.date.issued 2023
dc.identifier.citation Fernandes A, Krog NH, McEachan R, Nieuwenhuijsen M, Julvez J, Márquez S, Castro M de, Urquiza J, Heude B, Vafeiadi M, Gražulevičienė R, Slama R, Dedele A, Aasvang GM, Evandt J, Andrusaityte S, Kampouri M, Vrijheid M. Availability, accessibility, and use of green spaces and cognitive development in primary school children. Environ Pollut. 2023 Oct 1;334:122143. DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2023.122143
dc.identifier.issn 0269-7491
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10230/58251
dc.description.abstract Green spaces may have beneficial impacts on children's cognition. However, few studies explored the exposure to green spaces beyond residential areas, and their availability, accessibility and uses at the same time. The aim of the present study was to describe patterns of availability, accessibility, and uses of green spaces among primary school children and to explore how these exposure dimensions are associated with cognitive development. Exposures to green space near home, school, commuting route, and other daily activity locations were assessed for 1607 children aged 6-11 years from six birth cohorts across Europe, and included variables related to: availability (NDVI buffers: 100, 300, 500 m), potential accessibility (proximity to a major green space: linear distance; within 300 m), and use (play time in green spaces: hours/year), and the number of visits to green spaces (times/previous week). Cognition measured as fluid intelligence, inattention, and working memory was assessed by computerized tests. We performed multiple linear regression analyses on pooled and imputed data adjusted for individual and area-level confounders. Availability, accessibility, and uses of green spaces showed a social gradient that was unfavorable in more vulnerable socioeconomic groups. NDVI was associated with more playing time in green spaces, but proximity to a major green space was not. Associations between green space exposures and cognitive function outcomes were not statistically significant in our overall study population. Stratification by socioeconomic variables showed that living within 300 m of a major green space was associated with improved working memory only in children in less deprived residential areas (β = 0.30, CI: 0.09,0.51), and that more time playing in green spaces was associated with better working memory only in children of highly educated mothers (β per IQR increase in hour/year = 0.10; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.19). However, studying within 300 m of a major green space increased inattention scores in children in more deprived areas (β = 15.45, 95% CI: 3.50, 27.40).
dc.description.sponsorship AF is supported by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033 and by European Union “NextGenerationEU/PRTR” (PCI2021-122047-2B). RM is supported by the National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) applied research collaboration for Yorkshire and Humber (NIHR200166) and by the UK Prevention Research Partnership (MR/S037527/1). Jose Urquiza is supported by Catalan program PERIS (Ref.: SLT017/20/000119), granted by Departament de Salut de la Generalitat de Catalunya (Spain). We acknowledge support from the grant CEX2018-000806-S funded by MCIN/AEI/ 10.13039/501100011033, and support from the Generalitat de Catalunya through the CERCA Program. This publication reflects only the authors’ view and the European Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains. We acknowledge support from Lourdes Cirugeda from ISGLOBAL and Miguel Burgaleta. This study received funding from the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no. 308333 – the HELIX project for data collection and analyses. The HELIX program built on six existing cohorts that received previous funding, including the major ones listed below. INMA data collections were supported by grants from the Instituto de Salud Carlos III, CIBERESP, and the Generalitat de Catalunya-CIRIT. KANC was funded by the grant of the Lithuanian Agency for Science Innovation and Technology (6-04-2014_31V-66). The Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort (MOBA) Study is supported by the Norwegian Ministry of Health and Care Services and the Ministry of Education and Research. The Rhea cohort was financially supported by European projects (FP6-Food NEWGENERIS Grant agreement ID: 16320, FP6-Food HI-WATE Grant agreement ID: 36224, FP7-ENVIRONMENT ESCAPE Grant agreement ID: 211250, FP7-ENVIRONMENT ENVIROGENOMARKERS Grant agreement ID: 226756, FP7-ENVIRONMENT ENRIECO Grant agreement ID: 226285, FP7-HEALTH CHICOS Grant agreement ID: 241604, FP7-ENVIRONMENT HELIX Grant agreement ID: 308333, H2020 LIFECYCLE Grant agreement ID: 733206, H2020 ATHLETE Grant agreement ID: 874583) and the Greek Ministry of Health (Program of Prevention of obesity and neurodevelopmental disorders in preschool children, in Heraklion district, Crete, Greece: 2011-2014; “Rhea Plus”: Primary Prevention Program of Environmental Risk Factors for Reproductive Health, and Child Health: 2012-15).The EDEN study was supported by Foundation for medical research (FRM), National Agency for Research (ANR), National Institute for Research in Public health (IRESP: TGIR cohorte santé 2008 program), French Ministry of Health (DGS), French Ministry of Research, INSERM Bone and Joint Diseases National Research (PRO-A), and Human Nutrition National Research Programs, Paris-Sud University, Nestlé, French National Institute for Population Health Surveillance (InVS), French National Institute for Health Education (INPES), the European Union FP7 programmes (FP7/2007–2013, HELIX, ESCAPE, ENRIECO, Medall projects), Diabetes National Research Program (through a collaboration with the French Association of Diabetic Patients (AFD)), French Agency for Environmental Health Safety (now ANSES), Mutuelle Générale de l’Education Nationale a complementary health insurance (MGEN), French national agency for food security, French-speaking association for the study of diabetes and metabolism (ALFEDIAM).
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher Elsevier
dc.relation.ispartof Environ Pollut. 2023 Oct 1;334:122143
dc.rights © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/bync-nd/4.0/).
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/bync-nd/4.0/
dc.title Availability, accessibility, and use of green spaces and cognitive development in primary school children
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2023.122143
dc.subject.keyword Attention
dc.subject.keyword Children
dc.subject.keyword Fluid intelligence
dc.subject.keyword Green spaces
dc.subject.keyword Working memory
dc.relation.projectID info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/FP7/308333
dc.relation.projectID info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/ES/3PE/PCI2021-122047-2B
dc.relation.projectID info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/ES/2PE/CEX2018-000806-S
dc.relation.projectID info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/FP7/226756
dc.relation.projectID info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/FP7/226285
dc.relation.projectID info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/FP7/241604
dc.relation.projectID info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/FP7/308333
dc.relation.projectID info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/H2020/733206
dc.relation.projectID info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/H2020/874583
dc.rights.accessRights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.type.version info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

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