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A qualitative investigation exploring why dance festivals are risky environments for drug use and potential adverse outcomes

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dc.contributor.author Palamar, Joseph J.
dc.contributor.author Sönmez, İbrahim
dc.date.accessioned 2023-05-10T06:26:33Z
dc.date.available 2023-05-10T06:26:33Z
dc.date.issued 2022
dc.identifier.citation Palamar JJ, Sönmez I. A qualitative investigation exploring why dance festivals are risky environments for drug use and potential adverse outcomes. Harm Reduct J. 2022;19:12. DOI: 10.1186/s12954-022-00598-5
dc.identifier.issn 1477-7517
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10230/56765
dc.description.abstract Background: Dance festivals have been shown to be high-risk events for use of drugs such as ecstasy/MDMA and possible adverse efects associated with use. However, few studies have examined what makes festivals such risky environments. We aimed to determine festival-specifc risk factors for adverse outcomes related to drug use. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 35 key informants in North America who deemed themselves experts in new psychoactive substances, and identifed as drug checkers, sellers, or experienced users. Interviews were coded in an inductive manner, and we conducted thematic analysis to identify relevant themes. Results: We identifed four main themes focusing on festival attendance as a risk factor for risky drug use and related outcomes: attendees inexperienced with electronic dance music parties and party drugs, risky drug purchasing, risky drug use practices, and festival-specifc environmental risk factors. Festivals attract a wide array of people not experienced with party drugs, yet drugs like ecstasy are commonly sought by such individuals inside festivals. Relying on strangers inside to purchase drugs is a risk factor for purchasing adulterated product. Fear of security/police at festivals leads to risky drug-taking such as ingesting one’s full batch of drugs at the entrance. These risks are compounded by environmental factors including crowding, hot temperature, and lack of water (which lead to dehydration), long/ consecutive event days (which can lead to exhaustion), and inadequate medical emergency response. Conclusions: We determined modifable risk factors which can both inform future research and future prevention and harm reduction eforts in this scene.
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher World Health Organization
dc.relation.ispartof Harm Reduction Journal. 2022;19:12.
dc.rights © The Author(s) 2022. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.title A qualitative investigation exploring why dance festivals are risky environments for drug use and potential adverse outcomes
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-022-00598-5
dc.subject.keyword Nightlife
dc.subject.keyword Dance festivals
dc.subject.keyword Ecstasy
dc.subject.keyword Environmental risk factors
dc.rights.accessRights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.type.version info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion


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