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Immuno-modulatory effects of intervertebral disc cells

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dc.contributor.author Bermúdez-Lekerika, Paola
dc.contributor.author Crump, Katherine B.
dc.contributor.author Tseranidou, Sofia
dc.contributor.author Nüesch, Andrea
dc.contributor.author Kanelis, Exarchos
dc.contributor.author Alminnawi, Ahmad
dc.contributor.author Baumgartner, Laura
dc.contributor.author Muñoz-Moya, Estefano
dc.contributor.author Compte, Roger
dc.contributor.author Gualdi, Francesco
dc.contributor.author Alexopoulos, Leonidas G.
dc.contributor.author Geris, Liesbet
dc.contributor.author Wuertz-Kozak, Karin
dc.contributor.author Le Maitre, Christine L.
dc.contributor.author Noailly, Jérôme
dc.contributor.author Gantenbein, Benjamin
dc.date.accessioned 2023-02-09T08:05:13Z
dc.date.available 2023-02-09T08:05:13Z
dc.date.issued 2022
dc.identifier.citation Bermudez-Lekerika P, Crump KB, Tseranidou S, Nüesch A, Kanelis E, Alminnawi A, et al. Immuno-modulatory effects of intervertebral disc cells. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2022 Jun 29; 10: 924692. DOI: 10.3389/fcell.2022.924692
dc.identifier.issn 2296-634X
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10230/55678
dc.description.abstract Low back pain is a highly prevalent, chronic, and costly medical condition predominantly triggered by intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). IDD is often caused by structural and biochemical changes in intervertebral discs (IVD) that prompt a pathologic shift from an anabolic to catabolic state, affecting extracellular matrix (ECM) production, enzyme generation, cytokine and chemokine production, neurotrophic and angiogenic factor production. The IVD is an immune-privileged organ. However, during degeneration immune cells and inflammatory factors can infiltrate through defects in the cartilage endplate and annulus fibrosus fissures, further accelerating the catabolic environment. Remarkably, though, catabolic ECM disruption also occurs in the absence of immune cell infiltration, largely due to native disc cell production of catabolic enzymes and cytokines. An unbalanced metabolism could be induced by many different factors, including a harsh microenvironment, biomechanical cues, genetics, and infection. The complex, multifactorial nature of IDD brings the challenge of identifying key factors which initiate the degenerative cascade, eventually leading to back pain. These factors are often investigated through methods including animal models, 3D cell culture, bioreactors, and computational models. However, the crosstalk between the IVD, immune system, and shifted metabolism is frequently misconstrued, often with the assumption that the presence of cytokines and chemokines is synonymous to inflammation or an immune response, which is not true for the intact disc. Therefore, this review will tackle immunomodulatory and IVD cell roles in IDD, clarifying the differences between cellular involvements and implications for therapeutic development and assessing models used to explore inflammatory or catabolic IVD environments.
dc.description.sponsorship Financial support was received from the Marie Skłodowska Curie International Training Network (ITN) “disc4all” (https://disc4all.upf.edu, accessed on 10 May 2022) grant agreement #955735 (https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/955735, accessed on 10 May 2022).
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher Frontiers
dc.rights Copyright © 2022 Bermudez-Lekerika, Crump, Tseranidou, Nüesch, Kanelis, Alminnawi, Baumgartner, Muñoz-Moya, Compte, Gualdi, Alexopoulos, Geris, Wuertz-Kozak, Le Maitre, Noailly and Gantenbein. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.title Immuno-modulatory effects of intervertebral disc cells
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2022.924692
dc.subject.keyword GWAS
dc.subject.keyword Agent-based model (ABM)
dc.subject.keyword Artificial intelligence–AI
dc.subject.keyword Catabolism
dc.subject.keyword Immune-privileged microenvironment
dc.subject.keyword Inflammation
dc.subject.keyword Intervertebral disc degeneration
dc.subject.keyword Low back pain
dc.relation.projectID info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/ H2020/955735
dc.rights.accessRights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.type.version info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

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