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Novel insights into PORCN mutations, associated phenotypes and pathophysiological aspects

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dc.contributor.author Arlt, Annabelle
dc.contributor.author Kohlschmidt, Nicolai
dc.contributor.author Hentschel, Andreas
dc.contributor.author Bartels, Enrika
dc.contributor.author Groß, Claudia
dc.contributor.author Töpf, Ana
dc.contributor.author Edem, Pinar
dc.contributor.author Szabo, Nora
dc.contributor.author Sickmann, Albert
dc.contributor.author Meyer, Nancy
dc.contributor.author Schara-Schmidt, Ulrike
dc.contributor.author Lau, Jarred
dc.contributor.author Lochmüller, Hanns
dc.contributor.author Horvath, Rita
dc.contributor.author Oktay, Yavuz
dc.contributor.author Roos, Andreas
dc.contributor.author Hiz, Semra
dc.date.accessioned 2022-04-20T06:30:19Z
dc.date.available 2022-04-20T06:30:19Z
dc.date.issued 2022
dc.identifier.citation Arlt A, Kohlschmidt N, Hentschel A, Bartels E, Groß C, Töpf A, Edem P, Szabo N, Sickmann A, Meyer N, Schara-Schmidt U, Lau J, Lochmüller H, Horvath R, Oktay Y, Roos A, Hiz S. Novel insights into PORCN mutations, associated phenotypes and pathophysiological aspects. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2022 Jan 31;17(1):29. DOI: 10.1186/s13023-021-02068-w
dc.identifier.issn 1750-1172
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10230/52852
dc.description.abstract Background: Goltz syndrome (GS) is a X-linked disorder defined by defects of mesodermal- and ectodermal-derived structures and caused by PORCN mutations. Features include striated skin-pigmentation, ocular and skeletal malformations and supernumerary or hypoplastic nipples. Generally, GS is associated with in utero lethality in males and most of the reported male patients show mosaicism (only three non-mosaic surviving males have been described so far). Also, precise descriptions of neurological deficits in GS are rare and less severe phenotypes might not only be caused by mosaicism but also by less pathogenic mutations suggesting the need of a molecular genetics and functional work-up of these rare variants. Results: We report two cases: one girl suffering from typical skin and skeletal abnormalities, developmental delay, microcephaly, thin corpus callosum, periventricular gliosis and drug-resistant epilepsy caused by a PORCN nonsense-mutation (c.283C > T, p.Arg95Ter). Presence of these combined neurological features indicates that CNS-vulnerability might be a guiding symptom in the diagnosis of GS patients. The other patient is a boy with a supernumerary nipple and skeletal anomalies but also, developmental delay, microcephaly, cerebral atrophy with delayed myelination and drug-resistant epilepsy as predominant features. Skin abnormalities were not observed. Genotyping revealed a novel PORCN missense-mutation (c.847G > C, p.Asp283His) absent in the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD) but also identified in his asymptomatic mother. Given that non-random X-chromosome inactivation was excluded in the mother, fibroblasts of the index had been analyzed for PORCN protein-abundance and -distribution, vulnerability against additional ER-stress burden as well as for protein secretion revealing changes. Conclusions: Our combined findings may suggest incomplete penetrance for the p.Asp283His variant and provide novel insights into the molecular etiology of GS by adding impaired ER-function and altered protein secretion to the list of pathophysiological processes resulting in the clinical manifestation of GS.
dc.description.sponsorship Open Access funding enabled and organized by Projekt DEAL. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the Ministerium für Innovation, Wissenschaft und Forschung des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen and the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung. This work was also supported by a Grant of the French Muscular Dystrophy Association (AFM-Téléthon) (#21466) to AR. Parts of this study were financed in the framework of the NME-GPS project by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). The project is supported by TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey) Project No. 216S771. RH was supported by the European Research Council [309548], the Wellcome Investigator Award [109915/Z/15/Z]. The Medical Research Council (UK) [MR/N025431/1]; the Wellcome Trust Pathfinder Scheme [201064/Z/16/Z], the Newton Fund [UK/Turkey, MR/N027302/1], the Lily Foundation and the Evelyn Trust. Sequencing and analysis of patient 2 were provided by the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard Center for Mendelian Genomics (Broad CMG) and was funded by the National Human Genome Research Institute, the National Eye Institute, and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Grant UM1 HG008900 and in part by National Human Genome Research Institute Grant R01 HG009141. Sequencing of patient 1 was carried out through the Biobanking and Biomedical Resources Research Infrastructure ‐ large prospective cohorts (BBMRI‐LPC) 2016 access call for Whole Exome Sequencing (FP7/2007‐2013), Grant Number: 313010. Data was analyzed using the RD‐Connect Genome‐Phenome Analysis platform developed under FP7/2007‐2013 funded project, Grant Number: 305444. HL receives support from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (Foundation Grant FDN-167281), the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and Muscular Dystrophy Canada (Network Catalyst Grant for NMD4C), the Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI-JELF 38412), and the Canada Research Chairs program (Canada Research Chair in Neuromuscular Genomics and Health, 950-232279). The study was further supported by the Horizon 2020 research and innovation program via Grant 779257 “Solve-RD” (RH and HL). USS, RH and HL are members of the European Reference Network for Rare Neuromuscular Diseases (EURO-NMD). YO is supported by the Turkish Academy of Sciences’ Young Investigator Award (TÜBA-GEBIP).
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher BioMed Central
dc.relation.ispartof Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2022 Jan 31;17(1):29
dc.rights © The Author(s) 2022. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.title Novel insights into PORCN mutations, associated phenotypes and pathophysiological aspects
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-021-02068-w
dc.subject.keyword Connective tissue disorder
dc.subject.keyword ER-stress
dc.subject.keyword Fibroblast proteomics
dc.subject.keyword Focal dermal hypoplasia
dc.subject.keyword Goltz syndrome
dc.subject.keyword Lamin a/c
dc.subject.keyword Protein-serine O-palmitoleoyltransferase porcupine
dc.relation.projectID info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/FP7/309548
dc.relation.projectID info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/FP7/313010
dc.relation.projectID info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/FP7/305444
dc.relation.projectID info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/H2020/779257
dc.rights.accessRights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.type.version info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

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