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Associations between greenspace and gentrification-related sociodemographic and housing cost changes in major metropolitan areas across the United States

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dc.contributor.author Schinasi, Leah H.
dc.contributor.author Cole, Helen
dc.contributor.author Hirsch, Jana A.
dc.contributor.author Hamra, Ghassan B.
dc.contributor.author Gullón, Pedro
dc.contributor.author Bayer, Felicia
dc.contributor.author Melly, Steven J.
dc.contributor.author Neckerman, Kathryn M.
dc.contributor.author Clougherty, Jane E.
dc.contributor.author Lovasi, Gina S.
dc.date.accessioned 2021-09-21T06:01:15Z
dc.date.available 2021-09-21T06:01:15Z
dc.date.issued 2021
dc.identifier.citation Schinasi LH, Cole HVS, Hirsch JA, Hamra GB, Gullon P, Bayer F, Melly SJ, Neckerman KM, Clougherty JE, Lovasi GS. Associations between greenspace and gentrification-related sociodemographic and housing cost changes in major metropolitan areas across the United States. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(6):3315. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18063315
dc.identifier.issn 1661-7827
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10230/48483
dc.description.abstract Neighborhood greenspace may attract new residents and lead to sociodemographic or housing cost changes. We estimated relationships between greenspace and gentrification-related changes in the 43 largest metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) of the United States (US). We used the US National Land Cover and Brown University Longitudinal Tracts databases, as well as spatial lag models, to estimate census tract-level associations between percentage greenspace (years 1990, 2000) and subsequent changes (1990-2000, 2000-2010) in percentage college-educated, percentage working professional jobs, race/ethnic composition, household income, percentage living in poverty, household rent, and home value. We also investigated effect modification by racial/ethnic composition. We ran models for each MSA and time period and used random-effects meta-analyses to derive summary estimates for each period. Estimates were modest in magnitude and heterogeneous across MSAs. After adjusting for census-tract level population density in 1990, compared to tracts with low percentage greenspace in 1992 (defined as ≤50th percentile of the MSA-specific distribution in 1992), those with high percentage greenspace (defined as >75th percentile of the MSA-specific distribution) experienced higher 1990-2000 increases in percentage of the employed civilian aged 16+ population working professional jobs (β: 0.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.11, 0.26) and in median household income (β: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.31). Adjusted estimates for the 2000-2010 period were near the null. We did not observe evidence of effect modification by race/ethnic composition. We observed evidence of modest associations between greenspace and gentrification trends. Further research is needed to explore reasons for heterogeneity and to quantify health implications.
dc.description.sponsorship This work was funded by the National Institute of Aging (grants 1R01AG049970, 3R01AG049970-04S1), the Commonwealth Universal Research Enhancement (C.U.R.E) program funded by the Pennsylvania Department of Health—2015 Formula award—SAP #4100072543, the Urban Health Collaborative at Drexel University, and the Built Environment and Health Research Group at Columbia University. This work was also supported by the American Heart Association—Award # 00015611. H.C. was additionally supported by the European Research Council under grant agreement [No 678034] and a Juan de la Cierva fellowship [IJC-2018-035322-I] awarded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness.
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher MDPI
dc.relation.ispartof Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(6):3315
dc.rights © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.title Associations between greenspace and gentrification-related sociodemographic and housing cost changes in major metropolitan areas across the United States
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063315
dc.subject.keyword Gentrification
dc.subject.keyword Green
dc.subject.keyword Greenspace
dc.subject.keyword Income
dc.subject.keyword Poverty
dc.subject.keyword Race
dc.subject.keyword Socioeconomic position
dc.subject.keyword Spatial
dc.subject.keyword Urban
dc.relation.projectID info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/H2020/678034
dc.rights.accessRights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.type.version info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion


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