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The penile microbiota of Black South African men: relationship with human papillomavirus and HIV infection

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dc.contributor.author Onywera, Harris
dc.contributor.author Williamson, Anna-Lise
dc.contributor.author Cozzuto, Luca
dc.contributor.author Bonnin, Sarah
dc.contributor.author Mbulawa, Zizipho Z.A.
dc.contributor.author Coetzee, David
dc.contributor.author Ponomarenko, Julia
dc.contributor.author Meiring, Tracy L.
dc.date.accessioned 2020-05-12T07:09:51Z
dc.date.available 2020-05-12T07:09:51Z
dc.date.issued 2020
dc.identifier.citation Onywera H, Williamson AL, Cozzuto L, Bonnin S, Mbulawa ZZA, Coetzee D, Ponomarenko J, Meiring TL. The penile microbiota of Black South African men: relationship with human papillomavirus and HIV infection. BMC Microbiol. 2020; 20(1):78. DOI: 10.1186/s12866-020-01759-x
dc.identifier.issn 1471-2180
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10230/44488
dc.description.abstract Background: To date, the microbiota of the human penis has been studied mostly in connection with circumcision, HIV risk and female partner bacterial vaginosis (BV). These studies have shown that male circumcision reduces penile anaerobic bacteria, that greater abundance of penile anaerobic bacteria is correlated with increased cytokine levels and greater risk of HIV infection, and that the penile microbiota is an important harbour for BV-associated bacteria. While circumcision has been shown to significantly reduce the risk of acquiring human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, the relationship of the penile microbiota with HPV is still unknown. In this study, we examined the penile microbiota of HPV-infected men as well as the impact of HIV status. Results: The penile skin microbiota of 238 men from Cape Town (South Africa) were profiled using Illumina sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Corynebacterium and Prevotella were found to be the most abundant genera. Six distinct community state types (CSTs) were identified. CST-1, dominated by Corynebacterium, corresponded to less infections with high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) relative to CSTs 2–6. Men in CST-5 had greater relative abundances of Prevotella, Clostridiales, and Porphyromonas and a lower relative abundance of Corynebacterium. Moreover, they were significantly more likely to have HPV or HR-HPV infections than men in CST-1. Using a machine learning approach, we identified greater relative abundances of the anaerobic BV-associated bacteria (Prevotella, Peptinophilus, and Dialister) and lower relative abundance of Corynebacterium in HR-HPV-infected men compared to HR-HPV-uninfected men. No association was observed between HIV and CST, although the penile microbiota of HIV-infected men had greater relative abundances of Staphylococcus compared to HIV-uninfected men. Conclusions: We found significant differences in the penile microbiota composition of men with and without HPV and HIV infections. HIV and HR-HPV infections were strongly associated with greater relative abundances of Staphylococcus and BV-associated bacterial taxa (notably Prevotella, Peptinophilus and Dialister), respectively. It is possible that these taxa could increase susceptibility to HIV and HR-HPV acquisition, in addition to creating conditions in which infections persist. Further longitudinal studies are required to establish causal relationships and to determine the extent of the effect.
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher BioMed Central
dc.relation.ispartof BMC Microbiol. 2020; 20(1):78
dc.rights © The Author(s). 2020 Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data ma
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.title The penile microbiota of Black South African men: relationship with human papillomavirus and HIV infection
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-020-01759-x
dc.subject.keyword HIV
dc.subject.keyword Human papillomavirus (HPV)
dc.subject.keyword Microbiota
dc.subject.keyword Penile
dc.rights.accessRights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.type.version info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

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