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Ingested Nitrate and Breast Cancer in the Spanish Multicase-Control Study on Cancer (MCC-Spain).

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dc.contributor.author Espejo Herrera, Nadia Carminia, 1983-
dc.contributor.author Gràcia Lavedan, Esther
dc.contributor.author Font Ribera, Laia
dc.contributor.author Castaño Vinyals, Gemma
dc.contributor.author Kogevinas, Manolis
dc.contributor.author Villanueva Belmonte, Cristina
dc.date.accessioned 2016-09-06T09:48:52Z
dc.date.available 2016-09-06T09:48:52Z
dc.date.issued 2016
dc.identifier.citation Espejo-Herrera N, Gracia-Lavedan E, Pollan M, Aragonés N, Boldo E, Perez-Gomez B, Ingested Nitrate and Breast Cancer in the Spanish Multicase-Control Study on Cancer (MCC-Spain). Environ Health Perspect. 2016 Jul;124(7):1042-9. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.1510334
dc.identifier.issn 0091-6765
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10230/27275
dc.description.abstract BACKGROUND: Ingested nitrate leads to endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds that are breast carcinogens in animals, but human evidence is limited. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated ingested nitrate as a risk factor for breast cancer (BC) in a multicase-control study. METHODS: Hospital-based incident BC cases and population-based controls were recruited in eight Spanish regions in 2008-2013; participants provided residential and water consumption from 18 years of age and information on known BC risk factors. Long-term nitrate levels (1940-2010) were estimated and linked with residential histories and water consumption to calculate waterborne ingested nitrate (milligrams/day). Dietary ingested nitrate (milligrams/day) was calculated using food frequency questionnaires and published dietary nitrate contents. Interactions with endogenous nitrosation factors and other variables were evaluated. A total of 1,245 cases and 1,520 controls were included in the statistical analysis. RESULTS: Among the study regions, average ± SD waterborne ingested nitrate ranged from 2.9 ± 1.9 to 13.5 ± 7.5 mg/day, and dietary ingested nitrate ranged from 88.5 ± 48.7 to 154 ± 87.8 mg/day. Waterborne ingested nitrate was not associated with BC overall, but among postmenopausal women, those with both high nitrate (> 6 vs. < 2.6 mg/day) and high red meat intake (≥ 20 vs. < 20 g/day) were more likely to be cases than women with low nitrate and low red meat intake (adjusted odds ratio = 1.64; 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 2.49; overall interaction p-value = 0.17). No association was found with dietary nitrate. CONCLUSIONS: Waterborne ingested nitrate was associated with BC only among postmenopausal women with high red meat consumption. Dietary nitrate was not associated with BC regardless of the animal or vegetable source or of menopausal status.
dc.description.sponsorship This study was funded by the “Acción Transversal del Cáncer del Consejo de Ministros del 11/10/2007” from the “Instituto de Salud Carlos III-FEDER” (PI08/1770, PI08/0533, PI11/00226), ISCIII FIS grants. N.E.H. received financial support for the Ph.D. program from the “Agència de Gestió d’Ajuts Universitaris i de Recerca (AGAUR FI-DGR 2013) Generalitat de Cataluña.”
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher Environmental Health Perspectives
dc.relation.ispartof Environ Health Perspect. 2016 Jul;124(7):1042-9
dc.rights Reproduced with permission from Environmental Health Perspectives
dc.subject.other Mama -- Càncer
dc.subject.other Aigua -- Consum -- Espanya
dc.title Ingested Nitrate and Breast Cancer in the Spanish Multicase-Control Study on Cancer (MCC-Spain).
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510334
dc.rights.accessRights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.type.version info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion

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