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Genomic ancestry of North Africans supports back-to-Africa migrations

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dc.contributor.author Henn, Brenna M.
dc.contributor.author Botigué, Laura R.
dc.contributor.author Gravel, Simon
dc.contributor.author Wang, Wei
dc.contributor.author Brisbin, Abra
dc.contributor.author Byrnes, Jake K.
dc.contributor.author Fadhlaoui-Zid, Karima
dc.contributor.author Zalloua, Pierre A.
dc.contributor.author Moreno Estrada, Andrés
dc.contributor.author Bertranpetit, Jaume, 1952-
dc.contributor.author Bustamante, Carlos D.
dc.contributor.author Comas, David, 1969-
dc.date.accessioned 2015-04-20T07:05:11Z
dc.date.available 2015-04-20T07:05:11Z
dc.date.issued 2012
dc.identifier.citation Henn BM, Botigue LR, Gravel S, Wang W, Brisbin A, Byrnes JK et al. Genomic ancestry of North Africans supports back-to-Africa migrations. PLoS Genetics. 2012;8(1):e1002397. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002397
dc.identifier.issn 1553-7390
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10230/23438
dc.description.abstract North African populations are distinct from sub-Saharan Africans based on cultural, linguistic, and phenotypic attributes; however, the time and the extent of genetic divergence between populations north and south of the Sahara remain poorly understood. Here, we interrogate the multilayered history of North Africa by characterizing the effect of hypothesized migrations from the Near East, Europe, and sub-Saharan Africa on current genetic diversity. We present dense, genome-wide SNP genotyping array data (730,000 sites) from seven North African populations, spanning from Egypt to Morocco, and one Spanish population. We identify a gradient of likely autochthonous Maghrebi ancestry that increases from east to west across northern Africa; this ancestry is likely derived from “back-to-Africa” gene flow more than 12,000 years ago (ya), prior to the Holocene. The indigenous North African ancestry is more frequent in populations with historical Berber ethnicity. In most North African populations we also see substantial shared ancestry with the Near East, and to a lesser extent sub-Saharan Africa and Europe. To estimate the time of migration from sub-Saharan populations into North Africa, we implement a maximum likelihood dating method based on the distribution of migrant tracts. In order to first identify migrant tracts, we assign local ancestry to haplotypes using a novel, principal component-based analysis of three ancestral populations. We estimate that a migration of western African origin into Morocco began about 40 generations ago (approximately 1,200 ya); a migration of individuals with Nilotic ancestry into Egypt occurred about 25 generations ago (approximately 750 ya). Our genomic data reveal an extraordinarily complex history of migrations, involving at least five ancestral populations, into North Africa
dc.description.sponsorship BMH, SG, and CDB were supported by NIH grant 3R01HG003229. LRB and DC were supported by MCINN grant CGL2010-14944/BOS and Generalitat de Catalunya grant 2009SGR1101. AM-E and AB were supported by NIH grant R01GM083606. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher Public Library of Science (PLoS)
dc.relation.ispartof PLoS Genetics. 2012;8(1):e1002397
dc.rights © 2012 Henn et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits/nunrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited
dc.subject.other Genètica de poblacions humanes
dc.subject.other Genètica humana -- Variació
dc.title Genomic ancestry of North Africans supports back-to-Africa migrations
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002397
dc.relation.projectID info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/ES/3PN/CGL2010-14944
dc.rights.accessRights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.type.version info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

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