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Papel del activador tisular del plasminógeno (tPA) en el desarrollo y progresión tumoral pancreática en modelos murinos

Mostra el registre parcial de l'element Aguilar Izquierdo, Susana
dc.contributor.other Navarro Medrano, Pilar
dc.contributor.other Real, Francisco X.
dc.contributor.other Universitat Pompeu Fabra. Departament de Ciències Experimentals i de la Salut 2013-07-12T01:50:24Z 2013-07-12T01:50:24Z 2004-02-26
dc.identifier urn:isbn:8468862398
dc.description.abstract Exocrine pancreatic cancer is the fifth leading cause of death from malignant disease in Western society and it is one of the most aggressive human tumors. Once diagnosed, the 12-month patient survival is less than 5%. More than 90% of human exocrine tumors are classified as "ductal adenocarcinomas" on the basis of their microscopic appearance.The plasminogen system plays a critical role in intravascular thrombolysis as well as in other biological processes that require cellular migration, such as angiogenesis, inflammatory reactions, tissue remodelling, and tumor progression. There are two types of plasminogen activators that catalyze plasmin generation from plasminogen: tissue-type (tPA) and urokinase-type (uPA). Activation of plasminogen to plasmin results in progressive degradation of fibrin and other extracellular matrix components and may also lead to activation of metalloproteases, latent growth factors, and proteolysis of membrane glycoproteins. All these processes may contribute to tumor development and metastasis. There is extensive evidence supporting the notion that the uPA system, including its receptor and plasminogen activator inhibitor PAI-1, can contribute to tumorigenesis in a variety of tissue types but there is less evidence for such a role regarding tPA and annexin A2 (AnxA2), a putative tPA receptor.Previous studies of our group have shown that tPA is commonly expressed in pancreas cancer tissues and cell lines and appears to be selectively associated with the neoplastic phenotype. Using neutralizing antibodies or chemical inhibitors leads to reduced in vitro tumor invasion. Our results support that - in the pancreas - the tPA system plays an important role in tumor development and/or progression whereas the uPA system may play a more dominant role in pancreatitis. More recent studies have shown that tPA stimulates cell proliferation and angiogenesis in exocrine pancreatic tumors. These results allow new approaches to improve the treatment of this disease, but to do so it is necessary to use of mouse models of disease.In attempt to explore the role of tPA and its receptor, annexin A2, in pancreatic tumorigenesis, we have taken advantage of two well established transgenic mouse models: Ela1-TAg (1-127) and Ela1-myc. In these mice, transgenes are targeted to acinar cells using the Elastase-1 enhancer/promoter. We have also analyzed the pancreas of Ela1-CCK2 and MT-TGFa transgenic mice, as models of acinar-ductal transdifferentiation and ductal complex formation. Our results show that expression of tPA is undetectable in the non-neoplastic pancreatic epithelium and in metaplastic ducts and in acinar tumors. By contrast, tPA is overexpressed in neoplastic pancreatic ducts. This pattern expression is in agreement with the results described in humans, indicating that mouse models of pancreatic cancer may be useful for the study of human pathology. On the other hand, AnxA2 is undetectable in acinar tumors but it is detected in the apical membrane of normal and metaplastic duct epithelium. In addition, AnxA2 is strongly expressed in ductal tumor cells where it shows a non-polarized distribution. These results suggest that different molecular events may participate in the activation of tPA and its receptor, AnxA2, in non-neoplastic ducts.In order to analyze the role of tPA in the progression of pancreatic tumors, we mated Ela1-TAg and Ela1-myc transgenic mice to tPA-deficient mice. The proportion of tumors displaying pure acinar differentiation or mixed acinar/ductal components was similar in both mouse strains, indicating that tPA is not required for in acinar-ductal transdifferentiation. However, it was observed an increased survival in hybrid mice Ela1-myc:tPA-/- supporting a critical role for tPA in the progression of pancreatic ductal tumors. To get insight into the mechanism by wich tPA participates in this process we have analyzed factors related to tumor progression: tumors arising in a tPA-/- genetic background show a lesser vessel density and proliferation rate than those arising in wild type mice. These results indicate that tPA could play a role in angiogenesis stimulation and cell proliferation and suggest that the increase in survival observed in Ela1-myc tPA-/- mice could be a consequence of the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and cell proliferation. In addition, we have analyzed the differential gene expression between Ela1-myc and Ela1-myc tPA-/- mice by microarrays. This analysis has led to the identification of related genes with tumor progression and invasion that can be a target for the action of tPA, although more work is necessary to determined their role.Finally, we have studied the direct effects of the expression of tPA in the pancreas, by the generation of two transgenic mice which tPA expression is targeted to acinar cells, using the Elastase-1 enhancer/promoter (Ela1-tPA), or to ductal cells using the Citokeratin 19 promoter (CK19-tPA). The results in Ela1-tPA mice show that overexpression of tPA in acinar cells does not affect normal mouse development. The effects on the pancreas analysed are currently being analyzed in greater detail. Altogether, the data described here support the relevant role of tPA in pancreas cancer progression and indicate that mouse models of pancreatic cancer may be useful for the preclinical evaluation of drugs targeting the tPA system.
dc.format info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis
dc.format info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso spa
dc.publisher Universitat Pompeu Fabra
dc.rights ADVERTIMENT. L'accés als continguts d'aquesta tesi doctoral i la seva utilització ha de respectar els drets de la persona autora. Pot ser utilitzada per a consulta o estudi personal, així com en activitats o materials d'investigació i docència en els termes establerts a l'art. 32 del Text Refós de la Llei de Propietat Intel·lectual (RDL 1/1996). Per altres utilitzacions es requereix l'autorització prèvia i expressa de la persona autora. En qualsevol cas, en la utilització dels seus continguts caldrà indicar de forma clara el nom i cognoms de la persona autora i el títol de la tesi doctoral. No s'autoritza la seva reproducció o altres formes d'explotació efectuades amb finalitats de lucre ni la seva comunicació pública des d'un lloc aliè al servei TDX. Tampoc s'autoritza la presentació del seu contingut en una finestra o marc aliè a TDX (framing). Aquesta reserva de drets afecta tant als continguts de la tesi com als seus resums i índexs.
dc.rights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.source.uri TDX (Tesis Doctorals en Xarxa)
dc.title Papel del activador tisular del plasminógeno (tPA) en el desarrollo y progresión tumoral pancreática en modelos murinos
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis 2013-07-10T11:29:08Z
dc.subject.keyword Tissue plasminogen activator
dc.subject.keyword Survival
dc.subject.keyword Annexin A2
dc.subject.keyword Tumoral progresión
dc.subject.keyword Angiogenesis
dc.subject.keyword Microarrays
dc.subject.keyword Proliferation
dc.subject.keyword Activador tisular del plasminógeno (tPA)
dc.subject.keyword Sistema del plasminógeno
dc.subject.keyword Progresión tumoral
dc.subject.keyword Cáncer de páncreas
dc.subject.keyword Ratones transgénicos
dc.subject.keyword Anexina A2 (AnxA2)
dc.subject.keyword Proliferación
dc.subject.keyword Angiogénesis
dc.subject.keyword Supervivencia
dc.subject.keyword Plasminogen system
dc.subject.keyword Pancreas cancer
dc.subject.keyword Transgenic mice
dc.subject.keyword 576
dc.subject.keyword 577

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